The telecom sector and Bharti Airtel and Zain

Telecom Sector – Global Position

Components and factors responsible behind the growing of telecommunications industry

Two major factors responsible for the growing of telecommunications industry are use ofA modernA engineering and market competition. One of the merchandises of modern engineerings is optical fibres, which are being used as a medium of informations transmittal alternatively of utilizing coaxal or distorted brace overseas telegrams. Optical fibres can transport a high volume of informations and are easier to keep andA install. Use of communicating orbiters makes this telecommunications industry a flourishing industry.

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The usage of Mobile web has a important function behind the growing of an improved telecommunications industry. LeadingA companiesA are demoing their involvement to put in this telecommunications industry.

Telecommunications industry is traveling to be a digitized 1. Use ofA ISDNA ( Inter Services Digital Network ) makes this telecommunication industry a entire digitalized system and finally enhanced the velocity and quality of digital communicating.

Economic facet of telecommunication industry

World telecom industry is taking a important portion of universe economic system. The entire gross earned from this industry is 3 per centum of the gross universe merchandises and is taking at achieving more grosss. One statistical study reveals that about 16.9 % of the universe population has entree to theA Internet.

Present market scenario of universe telecom industry

Over the last twosome of old ages, universe telecommunication industry has been consolidating by leting private organisations the chances to run their concerns with this industry. The Government monopolies are now being privatized and accordingly competition is developing. Among all, the domestic and little concern markets are the hardest.

Market potency of worldA telecommunicationA industry

The universe telecommunications market is expected to lift at an 11 per centum compound one-year growing rate at the terminal of twelvemonth 2010. The taking telecom companies like AT & A ; T, Vodafone, Verizon, SBC Communications, Bell South, A QwestA CommunicationsA are seeking to take the advantage of this growing. These companies are working on telecommunication Fieldss like broadband engineerings, EDGE ( Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution ) engineerings, LAN-WAN interA networking, optical networking, voice over Internet protocol, radio informations service etc.

Top Global Telecom Players



Subscribers in 1000000s ( 09 ‘ )

Gross ( in US billion $ )

China Mobile

State owned Company, one of the 2 nomadic phone monopolies in China

Over 508


Vodafone Group

Britain ‘s largest Telecommunication operator

Over 427


Telefonica, S.A.

Multinational Company with bets in Spain, Latin America & A ; Europa. Owns the O2 Brand

Over 210


America Movil

Mexican Operator. Controlled by the universe ‘s richest adult male Carlos Slim

Over 201


Telenor Group

The company has a strong footmark in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia with over 40,000 employees.

Over 172


Deutsche Telekom AG

German telecom Company. Besides owns t-mobile.

Over 150


China Unicom

China Unicom ( BVI ) Limited efficaciously holds 40.92 % of the company and China Netcom Group ( BVI ) Limited holds 29.49 % , A while the balance is traded on theA Shanghai, A Hong KongA and theA New YorkA stock exchanges.A Both bulk stockholders are province controlled endeavors.

Over 186


TeliaSonera AB

Offer services in 20 markets in the Nordic and Baltic states, the emerging markets of Eurasia, including Russia and Turkey, and in Spain.

Over 150


France Telecom S.A.

It is the chief telecommunication company in France, the 3rd largest in Europe. It presently employs about 180,000 people worldwide.

Over 193


Bharti Airtel

One of Asia ‘s taking integrated telecom services suppliers with operations in 19 states across Asia and Africa. Zain is the new acquisition.

Over 124


Telecommunications Industry Overview


Unit of measurement



Worldwide Telecommunications Industry Revenues


Tril. US $


Transient ischemic attack

Land line

Global Landline Subscribers





Land lines, Compound Annual Growth Rate 2003-2008, Worldwide





Global Landlines per 100 Population


per 100




Annualized Entire Wireless Service Revenues


Bil. US $



Annualized Wireless Data Grosss


Bil. US $



Global Mobile Phone Subscribers*




LM Ericsson

Projected Global Mobile Phone Subscribers





Wireless Subscribers, Compound Annual Growth Worldwide 2003-08





Number of 3G Subscribers Worldwide



Q4 2009


Worldwide Mobile Phone Gross saless to End Users


Bil. Unit of measurements



Average Monthly Mobile Data Traffic, Worldwide




Cisco VNI

Projected Average Monthly Mobile Data Traffic




Cisco VNI

Television, Cable & A ; Internet

Monthly Global Internet Traffic




Cisco VNI

Projected Monthly Global Internet Traffic




Cisco VNI

TIA = Telecommunications Industry Association ; ITU = International Telecommunication Union ; CTIA = Cellular Telecommunications & A ; Internet Association ; Portio = Portio Research ; CDG = CDMA Development Group ; Cisco VNI = Cisco Visual Networking Index

* The existent figure of persons who own cell phones is lower, as some people own more than one “ subscription. ”

Beginning: Plunkett Research, Ltd. Copyright A© 2010, All Rights Reserved

Mergers & A ; Acquisition

Amalgamations and acquisitions ( M & A ; A ) and corporate restructuring are a large portion of the corporate finance universe. Every twenty-four hours, Wall Street investing bankers arrange M & A ; A minutess, which bring separate companies together to organize larger 1s. When they ‘re non making large companies from smaller 1s, corporate finance trades do the contrary and interrupt up companies through spinoffs, carve-outs or tracking stocks. Not surprisingly, these actions frequently make the intelligence. Deals can be deserving 100s of 1000000s, or even one million millions, of dollars. They can order the lucks of the companies involved for old ages to come. For a CEO, taking an M & A ; A can stand for the high spot of a whole calling. And it is no admiration we hear about so many of these minutess ; they happen all the clip. Following clip you flip open the newspaper ‘s concern subdivision, odds are good that at least one headline will denote some sort of M & A ; A dealing. Sure, M & A ; A trades grab headlines, but what does this all mean to investors? To reply this inquiry, this tutorial discusses the forces that drive companies to purchase or unify with others, or to split-off or sell parts of their ain concerns. Once you know the different ways in which these trades are executed, you ‘ll hold a better thought of whether you should hearten or cry when a company you ain bargains another company – or is bought by one. You will besides be cognizant of the revenue enhancement effects for companies and for investors.

Specifying M & A ; A

One plus one makes three: this equation is the particular chemistry of a amalgamation or an acquisition. The cardinal rule behind purchasing a company is to make stockholder value over and above that of the amount of the two companies. Two companies together are more valuable than two separate companies – at least, that ‘s the logical thinking behind M & A ; A. This principle is peculiarly tempting to companies when times are tough. Strong companies will move to purchase other companies to make a more competitory, cost-effective company. The companies will come together trusting to derive a greater market portion or to accomplish greater efficiency. Because of these possible benefits, mark companies will frequently hold to be purchased when they know they can non last entirely.

Differentiation between Amalgamations and Acquisitions

Although they are frequently uttered in the same breath and used as though they were synonymous, the footings amalgamation and acquisition mean somewhat different things. When one company takes over another and clearly established itself as the new proprietor, the purchase is called an acquisition. From a legal point of position, the mark company ceases to be, the purchaser “ sups ” the concern and the purchaser ‘s stock continues to be traded. In the pure sense of the term, a amalgamation happens when two houses, frequently of about the same size, hold to travel frontward as a individual new company instead than stay separately owned and operated. This sort of action is more exactly referred to as a “ amalgamation of peers. ” Both companies ‘ stocks are surrendered and new company stock is issued in its topographic point. For illustration, both Daimler-Benz and Chrysler ceased to be when the two houses merged, and a new company, DaimlerChrysler, was created. In pattern, nevertheless, existent amalgamations of peers do n’t go on really frequently. Normally, one company will purchase another and, as portion of the trade ‘s footings, merely let the acquired house to proclaim that the action is a amalgamation of peers, even if it ‘s technically an acquisition. Being bought out frequently carries negative intensions, hence, by depicting the trade as a amalgamation, trade shapers and top directors try to do the coup d’etat more toothsome.

A purchase trade will besides be called a amalgamation when both CEOs agree that fall ining together is in the best involvement of both of their companies. But when the trade is unfriendly – that is, when the mark company does non desire to be purchased – it is ever regarded as an acquisition. Whether a purchase is considered a amalgamation or an acquisition truly depends on whether the purchase is friendly or hostile and how it is announced. In other words, the existent difference lies in how the purchase is communicated to and received by the mark company ‘s board of managers, employees and stockholders.

The Deal

Start with an Offer

When the CEO and top directors of a company decide that they want to make a amalgamation or acquisition, they start with a stamp offer. The procedure typically begins with the geting company carefully and discreetly purchasing up portions in the mark company, or constructing a place. Once the geting company starts to buy portions in the unfastened market, it is restricted to purchasing 5 % of the entire outstanding portions before it must register with the SEC. In the filing, the company must officially declare how many portions it owns and whether it intends to purchase the company or maintain the portions strictly as an investing.

Working with fiscal advisers and investing bankers, the geting company will get at an overall monetary value that it ‘s willing to pay for its mark in hard currency, portions or both. The stamp offer is so often advertised in the concern imperativeness, saying the offer monetary value and the deadline by which the stockholders in the mark company must accept ( or cull ) it.

The Target ‘s Response

Once the stamp offer has been made, the mark company can make one of several things:

i‚· Accept the Footings of the Offer – If the mark house ‘s top directors and stockholders are happy with the footings of the dealing, they will travel in front with the trade.

i‚· Attempt to Negotiate – The stamp offer monetary value may non be high plenty for the mark company ‘s stockholders to accept, or the specific footings of the trade may non be attractive. In a amalgamation, there may be much at interest for the direction of the mark – their occupations, in peculiar. If they ‘re non satisfied with the footings laid out in the stamp offer, the mark ‘s direction may seek to work out more agreeable footings that let them maintain their occupations or, even better, direct them off with a nice, large compensation bundle. Not surprisingly, extremely sought-after mark companies that are the object of several bidders will hold greater latitude for dialogue. Furthermore, directors have more negotiating power if they can demo that they are important to the amalgamation ‘s future success.

i‚· Execute a Poison Pill or Some Other Hostile Takeover Defense- A toxicant pill strategy can be triggered by a mark company when a hostile suer acquires a preset per centum of company stock. To put to death its defence, the mark company grants all stockholders – except the geting company – options to purchase extra stock at a dramatic price reduction. This dilutes the geting company ‘s portion and stop its control of the company.

i‚· Find a White Knight – As an option, the mark company ‘s direction may seek out a friendly possible geting company, or white knight. If a white knight is found, it will offer an equal or higher monetary value for the portions than the hostile bidder.

Amalgamations and acquisitions can confront examination from regulative organic structures. For illustration, if the two biggest long-distance companies in the U.S. , AT & A ; T and Sprint, wanted to unify, the trade would necessitate blessing from the Federal Communications Commission ( FCC ) . The FCC would likely see a amalgamation of the two giants as the creative activity of a monopoly or, at the really least, a menace to competition in the industry.

Closing the Deal

Finally, one time the mark company agrees to the stamp offer and regulative demands are met, the amalgamation trade will be executed by agencies of some dealing. In a amalgamation in which one company buys another, the geting company will pay for the mark company ‘s portions with hard currency, stock or both. A cash-for-stock dealing is reasonably straightforward: mark company stockholders receive a hard currency payment for each portion purchased. This dealing is treated as a nonexempt sale of the portions of the mark company. If the dealing is made with stock alternatively of hard currency, so it ‘s non nonexempt. There is merely an exchange of portion certifications. The desire to maneuver clear of the revenue enhancement adult male explains why so many M & A ; A trades are carried out as stock-for-stock minutess. When a company is purchased with stock, new portions from the geting company ‘s stock are issued straight to the mark company ‘s stockholders, or the new portions are sent to a agent who manages them for mark company stockholders. The stockholders of the mark company are merely taxed when they sell their new portions. When the trade is closed, investors normally receive a new stock in their portfolios – the geting company ‘s expanded stock. Sometimes investors will acquire new stock placing a new corporate entity that is created by the M & A ; A trade.

Why They Can Fail

It ‘s no secret that plentifulness of amalgamations do n’t work. Those who advocate amalgamations will reason that the amalgamation will cut costs or hike grosss by more than plenty to warrant the monetary value premium. It can sound so simple: merely unite computing machine systems, unify a few sections, use sheer size to coerce down the monetary value of supplies and the merged giant should be more profitable than its parts. In theory, 1+1 = 3 sounds great, but in pattern, things can travel amiss.

Historical tendencies show that approximately two tierces of large amalgamations will let down on their ain footings, which means they will lose value on the stock market. The motives that drive amalgamations can be flawed and efficiencies from economic systems of graduated table may turn out elusive. In many instances, the jobs associated with seeking to do incorporate companies work are all excessively concrete.

Flawed Purposes

For starting motors, a dining stock market encourages amalgamations, which can spell problem. Deals done with extremely rated stock as currency are easy and inexpensive, but the strategic thought behind them may be easy and inexpensive excessively. Besides, amalgamations are frequently attempt to copy: person else has done a large amalgamation, which prompts other top executives to follow suit. A amalgamation may frequently hold more to make with glory-seeking than concern scheme. The executive self-importance, which is boosted by purchasing the competition, is a major force in M & A ; A, particularly when combined with the influences from the bankers, attorneies and other miscellaneous advisors who can gain large fees from clients engaged in amalgamations. Most CEOs get to where they are because they want to be the biggest and the best, and many top executives get a large fillip for amalgamation trades, no affair what happens to the portion monetary value subsequently. On the other side of the coin, amalgamations can be driven by generalised fright. Globalization, the reaching of new technological developments or a fast-changing economic landscape that makes the mentality uncertain are all factors that can make a strong inducement for defensive amalgamations. Sometimes the direction squad feels they have no pick and must get a rival before being acquired. The thought is that merely large participants will last a more competitory universe.

The Obstacles to doing it Work

Coping with a amalgamation can do top directors spread their clip excessively thinly and pretermit their nucleus concern, spelling day of reckoning. Too frequently, possible troubles seem fiddling to directors caught up in the bang of the large trade. The opportunities for success are farther hampered if the corporate civilizations of the companies are really different. When a company is acquired, the determination is typically based on merchandise or market synergisms, but cultural differences are frequently ignored. It ‘s a error to presume that forces issues are easy overcome. For illustration, employees at a mark company might be accustomed to easy entree to exceed direction, flexible work agendas or even a relaxed frock codification. These facets of a on the job environment may non look important, but if new direction removes them, the consequence can be resentment and shrinking productiveness. More insight into the failure of amalgamations is found in the extremely acclaimed survey from McKinsey, a planetary consultancy. The survey concludes that companies frequently focus excessively intently on cutting costs following amalgamations, while grosss, and finally, net incomes, suffer. Unifying companies can concentrate on integrating and cost-cutting so much that they neglect daily concern, thereby motivating nervous clients to fly. This loss of gross impulse is one ground so many amalgamations fail to make value for stockholders. But retrieve, non all amalgamations fail. Size and planetary range can be advantageous, and strong directors can frequently squash greater efficiency out of severely run challengers. However, the promises made by trade shapers demand the careful examination of investors. The success of amalgamations depends on how realistic the trade shapers are and how good they can incorporate two companies while keeping daily operations.


One size does n’t suit all. Many companies find that the best manner to acquire in front is to spread out ownership boundaries through amalgamations and acquisitions. For others, dividing the public ownership of a subordinate or concern section offers more advantages. At least in theory, amalgamations create synergisms and economic systems of graduated table, spread outing operations and cutting costs. Investors can take comfort in the thought that a amalgamation will present enhanced market power. By contrast, de-merged companies frequently enjoy improved operating public presentation thanks to redesigned direction inducements. Extra capital can fund growing organically or through acquisition. Meanwhile, investors benefit from the improved information flow from de-merged companies. M & A ; A comes in all forms and sizes, and investors need to see the complex issues involved in M & A ; A. The most good signifier of equity construction involves a complete analysis of the costs and benefits associated with the trades.

Telecom Sector Overview – India

Sub Base: 635.51 manganese

2nd largest market

Wireless Penetration: 53.77 %

lowest in the universe

HHI Index: really high

one of the most competitory market

Postpaid Base: 96 %

one of the highest in the universe

Use per bomber per month:

Minutess: 480

one of the highest

ARPU: – US $ 4.6

one of the lowest

Rate per minute: – US $ 0.01

one of the lowest in the universe

Vessel: -11.6 %

One of the lowest

Wireless Market Structure

Subscriber Tendencies

Customer Market Share ( CMS )

About Bharti Airtel

BhartiAirtel, a taking nomadic service supplier in India is Bharti Enterprises ‘ flagship company. Harmonizing to Forbes Global 2000 list, BhartiAirtel, India ‘s pioneering private telecommunication service supplier is ranked no. 826.

This integrated telecom service supplier operates three strategic concern units covering 23 telecommunication circles. These 3 strategic concerns are nomadic concern, endeavor concern, and Airteltelemedia concern. Their Mobile concern consisting fixed radio and nomadic services is spread over 23 telecom circles, whereas their Airteltelemedia concern provides telephone and broadband services to clients in 94 metropoliss. International and domestic long distance services and terminal to stop telecommunication solution for companies are included in Airtel endeavor concern.

Brief history

BhartiAirtel was established as Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited in 1985. This telecommunication company is a joint stock keeping endeavor headquartered in New Delhi. BhartiAirtel, normally called ‘Airtel ‘ is among largest nomadic service operator with a subscriber base of about 75 million. Airtel has a pigboat overseas telegram set downing station in Chennai linking this South Indian metropolis to Singapore.

Merchandises and services

Servicess offered by BhartiAirtel can be classified into the followers:

Mobile services – Based on figure of clients BhartiAirtel is largest nomadic service operator in India. This company offers nomadic services based on GSM engineering. For convenience of its clients BhartiAirtel has both pre- paid and post-paid installations.

Enterprise concern – BhartiAirtel provides incorporate services consisting nomadic, telephone, broadband, informations and connectivity services internationally every bit good as nationally for little, medium and big graduated table endeavors. Its bearer service provides web connectivity through ocular fibre over a distance of more than 35,000 kilometer. BhartiAirtel is a member of South East Asia – Middle East – Western Europe – 4 pools which include 15 planetary telecommunication service suppliers.

AirtelTelemedia Services – This Company offers high velocity broadband services through land lines in 94 metropoliss.


BhartiAirtel till March 2008 had assets deserving US $ 6.61 billion. During period between April 2007 – March 2008, it achieved gross revenues amounting to US $ 6.61 billion and net incomes of US $ 0.94 billion.

Awards and acknowledgment

BhartiAirtel was adjudged ‘Best Carrier India ‘ at 2008 Telecom Asia. It was recognized as ‘Best Cellular Service Provider ‘ and ‘Best Broadband Service Provider ‘ at V & A ; D 100 awards for 2008. In 2007, BhartiAirtel won ‘Business Leadership Award ‘ from NDTV Profit.


The direction of BhartiAirtel Ltd is led by ManojKohli who planned to present affordability and high use in its African portfolio which is presently a high monetary value environment ( with duties in some markets every bit high as Europe/US harmonizing to Bharti ) .

Some of the cardinal points about retroflexing Indian Wireless concern theoretical account in Africa that are in favour of Airtel are,

Bharti ‘s 15-country portfolio has a population is 459m as of June 2010. Share of population life in urban countries in Africa is ~40 % harmonizing to Bharti and expected to turn to 40 % . This compares to 30 % of India ‘s population life in urban countries.

The young person population in Africa histories for a 4th of the planetary young person and had a average age of 17-18 old ages. The working population is estimated to be higher than that in China and the in-between category is 400m people, expected to growing to 500m. GDP growing in 27 economic systems in Africa is 5 % + .

BhartiAirtel stressed that authoritiess had received Bharti good in Africa and that some functionaries stated that Bharti ‘s

programs are in-line with their ain.

Current Wireless incursion seting for Multiple SIMs is about 24 % .

Operators have 20MHz of 2G spectrum and 10MHz of 3G ( those who do ) which Bharti stated implies small room for more rivals.


BhartiAirtel: BhartiAirtel is India ‘s prima supplier of telecommunications services. The company provides GSM Mobile services across India in 23 telecom circles and broadband & A ; telephone services in 90 metropoliss.

Bharti Teletech Ltd. : Bharti TeleTech industries and exports world-class telecom equipment under the trade name Beetel ‘ . It is the lone Indian telephone company to be present in 30 states mapping 5 continents. The company ‘s merchandise scope include Basic Telephones, Caller ID Phones, Caller ID Boxes, Cordless Phones, 2.4 GHz Digital Cordless Phones, DECT 1.8 GHz Phones, and Set Top Boxes.

Telecom Seychelles Ltd: Telecommunication Seychelles Ltd provides comprehensive telecom services including GSM Cellular, PSTN ( Fixed Lines ) , Fax and Data, International Roaming, connectivity to Internet Services, Maritime Telecom Services ( INMARSAT ) and International Collect and Credit Card naming, in Seychelles, under the trade name ‘Airtel.

BhartiTelesoft Ltd: BhartiTelesoft Ltd provides value added services and solutions to wireless and wireline bearers worldwide. BhartiTelesoft Ltd ha deployed merchandises and solutions in 25 states to over 100 web, and has a client base of 150 million across 5 continents.

TeleTech Services ( India ) Ltd: TeleTech Servicess ( India ) Ltd is a joint venture between TeleTech Holdings, Inc. , universe ‘s prima full-service supplier of concern procedure outsourcing and Bharti TeleTech Ltd. The company offers offer the full spectrum of front-to-back-office concern procedures runing from voice and non-voice client support, back office disposal ( including recognition and aggregations, account care, application processing, claims processing, plus direction, papers direction etc. ) , gross revenues and selling ( including database selling, selling support, web gross revenues and selling etc. ) to planetary clients.

FieldFresh Foods Pvt Ltd: FieldFresh Foods ( P ) Ltd is an equal partnership venture between Bharti Enterprises and ELRo Holdings India Ltd, an investing company of the Rothschild household. The company provides premium quality fresh green goods to the markets worldwide and promotes universe category criterions for agricultural patterns, progressive agriculture techniques & A ; designation and acceptance of appropriate engineerings.

Bharti Retail Pvt Ltd: Bharti Retail Pvt Ltd. is a 100 % subordinate of Bharti Enterprises. Bharti Retail is be aftering to establish its retail mercantile establishments in multiple consumer friendly formats in several metropoliss across India

African Telecom Sector

It is one of the best penetrating chances for the planetary telecom participants is the telecom market in Africa. In Asia, Europe, North America, the telecom sector is nearing a impregnation point. The growing in these countries will be relatively slower. The companies ever look for the maximization of net income, whether it may be through cutting down of cost or increasing the gross revenues. If the market reaches a impregnation point so there is no chance to increase the sale. And if the company can non diminish the cost so it will seek either to diversify or to spread out its clasp in the planetary market. If the countries like North America, Asia and Europe are already in a impregnation point so the following growth market for the planetary participant will be Africa continent. Some of the major participants in the telecom sectors of Africa are MTN, Zain, Vodacom, STC etc.

Since the procedures of liberalisation and denationalization have been taken into consideration by African states such as Uganda, Tanzania, A Nigeria, The Sudan, South Africa and Kenya, their telecommunication substructures have improved drastically. Many African authoritiess have developed their telecommunication substructure by privatising their former state-owned endeavors. So these unfastened up the phase for planetary participants to execute in it. Africa has become the fastest turning mobile-network market during last five old ages. The nomadic user base has increased to more than 82 million in Africa. A study by Ernst & A ; Young shows that between 2002-07, the industry grew by 49.3 per centum as opposed to Asia which recorded a 27.4 per centum growing. This study ‘s estimate growing of the industry about doubles that of Brazil which stood at 28 per centum in the same period and is about seven times the growing of France which grew at 7.5 per centum over the same clip. Even there was a study by The World Bank in which it mentioned that Afro-nations like Kenya have 95 % of nomadic web incursion and coverage spread of merely 5 % . Therefore doing it an attractive market to entice some of the major participant from the universe. Let ‘s believe a spot over this scenario. Why the Afro nomadic market is developing so late and faster than any country that used to be at the same period of clip. In 2004, merely 6 % of the African citizen owned nomadic. The supply side was much higher than the demand side. And the monetary values dropped, but made the African nomadic web market a immense potency market for the planetary participants. They produced low cost and user-friendly phones and web programs to pull more and more client so that the company can increase its client base. But there some other standards or which we besides call as external environment of a company which affects a company to run in that country. The Law of Land besides affects the company to plan its operation in a state. They may be the tax-policy, the FDI policy of the authorities, the policy regarding and modulating the telecom sectors etc. Because of these ordinances, there are many Afro-nations like South Africa which hold a immense potency market. In South Africa, there are merely three participants in telecom web market.

The heavy revenue enhancement load on both the operator and consumer is the major challenge for the industry, with an mean revenue enhancement on the operator ‘s net incomes standing at 30 % . For illustration, in Kenya, people pay revenue enhancement of 26 % on nomadic communicating and the operator pay the staying 4 % . The entire revenue enhancement paid is 30 % . But still the authorities of these states opines that the industry is extremely profitable, despite of the fact that return on investing could be delayed due to hapless substructure. The Afro-nation does n’t hold the disposed substructure or the geographical hinderances every bit good as the population is scattered. The chief job lies with the electric substructure. The company has to maintain more than 2000 standby generators because of frequent power failure. On of the company runing in Kenya, Safaricom spends over KShs 171 million on Diesels due to miss of power supply. This makes the cost of investing much high in comparing to the other country. The operating cost of the company is high in this country because of frequent power cut and even the revenue enhancement rate is besides high, therefore conveying down the net income of the company. But it may be the future scenario of these states which lures the planetary participants. The company may prolong the loss in the short-run but it may gain net income in the long-run. Because the economic system of Afro-nations are turning at a singular rate and the substructure are besides bit by bit increasing. So it may in the long-term be competently developed so as to prefer the web industry. Furthermore this is the entry degree of the web sector in Africa as it is developing but one time it acquire saturated the menace to entrants lessenings because if they enter in to the section, they will non happen any supernumeraries to entice the clients.

African Wireless Market

Customer base: 36.36 Mn

Perfomance Indexs:

Gross: 9,583 Mn

Earnings before interest taxes depreciation and amortization: 2,635 Mn

Postpaid Base: 99.3 %

i? one of the highest in the universe

Use per bomber per month: 103 Minutess

i? one of the lowest

ARPU: ~US $ 7.4

i? one of the competitory market

Rate per minute: ~USA? 7.2

i? one of the highest in the universe

Vessel: ~7.9 %

i? one of the lowest

Emerging Market Characteristics in India & A ; Africa:

Beginning: Airtel Investor Presentation Aug 2010

Approximately Zain

Zain is a Kuwait based company started under the name of Mobile Telecommunication Company ( MTC ) in 1983 and was subsequently rebranded to ZAIN in 2007. Zain has present operation in 25 states covering 17 states in Africa and 8 states in Middle-East, with a estimated work force of 15000. As on February 2010, approximately 60 % of the Zain clients are in Africa lending merely 15 % to the net net income of Zain. Zain has a sum of 65 million clients. Out of which 39 million clients are from Africa. The eight states in Middle-East where Zain has it Operation are Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arab, Lebanon, Palestine and Sudan, It has its operation in Lebanon under the trade name name of MTC TOUCH. The 17 states which comprises of the members of the Zain ‘s Operative household in Africa are Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leona, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Morocco. Mr. Nabeel Bin Salamah is the Chief executive officer of the Zain Groups and Mr. Barak Al-Sabeeh is the president of the board of Director of the company.


Gross: US $ 7.441 Billion

Net Income: US $ 1.196 Billion


4th largest Mobile operator in the universe in footings of geographic footmark, with a commercial presence in 23 states

580 Million+ people under licence

15 million+ kilometer under licence or 60 % larger than USA

72.4 million clients

# 1 operator in 16 out of 22 markets

14.7 million+ clients in Nigeria

10.2 million+ clients in Iraq

500 million calls made daily

93 million SMS sent daily

13000+ employees & gt ; 100 nationalities

KD 2.318 billion in grosss ( US $ 8.056 billion ) , a 15.7 % addition

KD 926 million EBITDA ( US $ 3.215 billion ) , a 24 % addition

Zain trade name is valued at US $ 2.9 billion harmonizing to the 2010 BrandFinance Global 500 study

Zain is listed in the Financial Times ‘ Global 500 Index which ranks the universe ‘s largest companies based on market capitalisation

One Network

Covering more than 96 million clients

22 states and numeration

1 web – 0 Boundary lines

Local rates for voice and informations services while abroad

Ability to exceed up in all 22 states at over 1 million mercantile establishments


Launched in 6 African states

To be rolled out in all Zain operations

12 million+ clients to the full enabled for the service

2 million minutess in a month

Biggest Mobile Commerce service in the universe in footings of geographical coverage, enabled clients and service functionalities

Winner of the inaugural GSMA ‘s 2010 ‘Mobile Money for the unbanked Service ‘ award

What is ZAP?

Zap is the most comprehensive service enabling clients to entree their money faster and more conveniently.With an purpose of reshaping the hereafter of banking in Africa, the service will be available to over 100 million people in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

Supplying the most comprehensive and accessible bundle of nomadic banking characteristics presently available on the African continent, Zap will be ab initio available in Kenya and Tanzania prior to establish in Uganda. Zap represents the most comprehensive Mobile banking service of all time launched and will supply 1000000s of people with entree to banking for the really first clip.


Zain is partnering with prima international and regional Bankss including Citigroup and Standard Chartered to establish Zap, which will let Zain clients in the three states to utilize their nomadic phone to:


oA A Pay measures and pay for goods and services

oA A Receive money and direct money to friends and household

oA A Send and have money to the bank histories

oA A Withdraw hard currency

oA A Top up their ain airtime history or exceed up person else ‘s

oA A Send airtime to Zain clients in East Africa

oA A Manage their bank histories

Zap will supply clients with increased security and flexibleness, cut downing the demand to transport hard currency and guaranting payments between friends and household remain secure. A watchword is needed for each dealing and the service is protected through a state-of-the-art security application. Customers will besides profit from being able to entree the service 24 hours a twenty-four hours, 7 yearss a hebdomad through their French telephone bill of fare and bask the convenience of holding entree to hard currency anytime, anyplace.

The Way Ahead

The major issue for Bharti would be to turn around Zain whose African operations are in losingss right now. This is non because Zain is a dawdler but it is no MTN either, which is the market leader by far and discontinue profitable excessively.

Zain has had a centralised bid and control construction but most of its presence in Africa has been build through acquisitions, biggest being that of Celtel. Unfortunately the theoretical account has non worked. All of these acquisitions will be diverse companies and to flog them together into a composite corporate civilization will be possibly the toughest undertaking. This is where Sunil Mittal would trust that his squad would present. Till now, Zain has had a really top down attack and its local units are non empowered, this is revealed in the company ‘s name itself. ( Sing the trade name Zain has no significance in Africa ) .

Once the administration issues are under control the squad would confront its following set of challenges. This would be forcing up profitableness. There are five cardinal markets in Africa, out of which Zain has a presence in merely Nigeria. Sing the top 10 markets, apart from Nigeria, Zain has its presence in Kenya and Tanzania. This poses its ain challenges but its more serious job is that it does n’t hold a leading place in many of the markets where it is present.

The easiest thing would be to establish a monetary value war. The construction of the present African market makes such an option alluring sing this is how the Indian market was ten old ages ago. African telecom duties are one of the highest in the universe. Naturally Bharti would hold enormous range to convey down costs and work the synergisms. The chance is in the undersea overseas telegrams, informations and Internet services. In fact, everything in Africa is up for grabs because all the services are more expensive than even some of the developed states. This is where ordinances need to be managed as Telecom is really tightly regulated in Africa. Governments control duties. There are licencing governments and they will change from state to state unlike India holding one TRAI. Bharti could besides seek and assail the cost side of the concern. There is a deficiency of resources within the African continent. The market needs several extremely skilled directors with great executing capablenesss and Bharti can convey them.

Apart from people, the cost of substructure excessively is really high. The cost of operation in Africa is besides among the highest in the universe. The cardinal ground for the high cost is the deficiency of physical substructure. This is where Bharti will hold to implement its minute mill theoretical account ruthlessly. The classical Telco theoretical account will be virtualised. Some portion of the operation would travel to loom companies, some portion to BPOs and some to networking companies. Bharti could besides look at making an ecosystem like India. For case challengers could come together for a tower joint venture. The fast one will be to travel from a fixed cost theoretical account to a variable cost theoretical account, which will kick get down the virtuous rhythm of lower monetary values and higher endorser growing.

After taking attention of costs Bharti could convey in some of the selling musculus to Zains operation. Zain is surely no slouch in this country as two of its selling programs have shown a just grade of callback. The first was called “ One Network ” , where Zain allowed its endorsers to roll across different state webs at local call rates. The other selling move was “ Zap ” which was Zains alternate to Safaricom ‘s M-Pesa m-commerce offering. Bharti would decidedly make good to check big concerns as clients. With clever cost direction and more selling musculus Bharti would decidedly be able to alter the fiscal wellness of the company.

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Current Positioning & A ; Way Forward for Airtel:

Beginning: Airtel Investor Presentation Aug 2010