The Cellular Level of Organization

Chapter 3: The Multiple Choice 1. a. b. c. d. e. 2. a. b. c. d. e. 3. a. b. c. d. Cellular Level of Organization What are the three main parts of a eukaryotic cell? Plasma membrane, organelles, cytoplasm Plasma membrane, organelles, nucleus Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, organelles Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus Plasma membrane, cytosol, organelles Plasma membranes consist of what three components? Phospholipids, glycoproteins, water Proteins, cholesterol, fatty acids Cholesterol, fatty acids, glycolipids Proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol Water, proteins, fatty acids What are the nonpolar parts of a phospholipid?

Head group Tail group Both are nonpolar Neither are nonpolar 4. This is the only polar portion of a cholesterol molecule and it forms hydrogen bonds with the polar heads of phospholipids. a. –OH group b. –CH3 group c. –CH4 group d. –OOH group e. None of the above 5. This type of membrane protein will extend throughout the entire membrane touching both the Intracellular fluid and the Extracellular fluid. a. Integral proteins b. Transmembrane proteins c. Phospholipids d. Integral proteins and Transmembrane proteins e. All of the above 6.

This portion of the cell membrane enables cell membranes to produce chemical products. a. Receptors b. Phospholipids c. Cholesterol d. Enzymes e. Ligand 7. Which of the following is a function of a membrane protein that binds with hormones and neurotransmitters? a. Transporters b. Receptors c. Enzymes d. Linkers e. Cell Identification markers Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 1 8. This type of membrane protein helps to anchor proteins in the plasma membrane of neighboring cells to one another. a. Transporters b. Receptors c. Ligand d. Ion channels e. Linkers 9.

The characteristic of plasma membranes allowing only some substances to move through is known as _________________ a. Selective permeability b. Concentration gradient c. Electrical gradient d. Solubility e. Transportation 10. a. b. c. d. e. 11. a. b. c. d. e. Which of the following does NOT influence the rate of diffusion? Steepness of the concentration gradient Mass of the diffusing substance Charge of the diffusing substance Amount of ATP available Temperature This is the transport process by which gases move through a membrane. Osmosis Active transport Secondary active transport Simple diffusion Endocytosis 2. In this type of transport process a solute, like Glucose, binds to a specific transporter protein on one side of the membrane and is released on the other side after the transporter protein undergoes a change in shape. a. Osmosis b. Active transport c. Secondary active transport d. Facilitated diffusion e. Endocytosis 13. In this transport process, the energy from hydrolysis of ATP is used to drive substances across the membrane against their own concentration gradients. a. Primary active transport b. Secondary active transport c. Facilitated diffusion d. Passive diffusion e.

Osmosis 14. If the solute concentration is greater in the solution on the inside of the cell, compared to the solute concentration of the solution that is outside the cell, then what direction will water move? a. into the cell b. out of the cell c. no movement Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 2 15. In this transport process, the energy stored in Na+ or H+ concentration gradient is used to drive other substances across the membrane against their own concentration gradients. a. Primary active transport b. Secondary active transport c. Facilitated diffusion d. Passive diffusion 16.

This is a transport process by which cells secrete materials, within vesicles, into the extracellular fluid. a. Endocytosis b. Exocytosis c. Active transport d. Diffusion 17. This is a transport process by which cells take up extracellular substances within vesicles.. a. Endocytosis b. Exocytosis c. Active transport d. Diffusion 18. This is an extension of the plasma membrane that will surround a particle outside the cell forming a vesicle. a. Phagocyte b. Exterior vesicle c. Interior vesicle d. Pinocytosis 19. a. b. c. d. e. 20. a. b. c. d. e. 21. a. b. c. d. e. 22. a. b. c. d. e.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the cytosol? Primarily consists of water. Location of electron transport chain carrier proteins. Site of many important chemical reactions. Often contains aggregates of triglycerides that form lipid droplets Contains the enzymes of glycolysis These perform special functions in cellular growth, maintenance and reproduction. organelles cytoskeleton cytoplasm cytosol nucleus This organelle is comprised of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. cytoskeleton cytoplasm cilia flagella ribosome This is comprised of a pair of centrioles and pericentriolar materials. ytoskeleton cilia centrosome flagella peroxisomes Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 3 23. One type of human cell (spermatozoa) is capable of movement because it has this type of microtubule-containing structure. a. cilia b. flagella c. cytoskeleton d. cytosol e. intermediate filament 24. a. b. c. d. e. 25. a. b. c. d. e. 26. a. b. c. d. e. 27. a. b. c. d. e. 28. a. b. c. d. e. 29. a. b. c. d. e. 30. a. b. c. d. Dr. D. This organelle contains ribosomes, which synthesize proteins rough endoplasmic reticulum cytosol nucleus centriole mitochondria This is an organelle that modifies proteins produced elsewhere. ndoplasmic reticulum Golgi body peroxisomes nucleus proteasome These are small flattened curved membranous sacs with bulging edges. secretory vessels membrane vessels cisternae cis face trans face Which organelle oxidizes organic molecules? peroxisomes mitochondria proteasome ribosomes lysosomes Which organelle recycles worn out organelles? peroxisomes mitochondria proteasome ribosomes lysosomes Proteasomes Perform extracellular digestion Perform autophagy Perform autolysis Degrade faulty cellular proteins Degrade ATP Mitochondria move the cell generate ATP produce proteins oxidize organelles Houston Community College Page 4 1. a. b. c. d. e. 32. a. b. c. d. e. 33. a. b. c. d. e. Which of the following protects the contents of the nucleus? Nucleic acids nuclear membrane nuclear centrosome cilia golgi apparatus What is the major function of a histone protein? For helix shape Adds a charge to DNA Help organize coiling of DNA Degrade proteins Enzymatic effect This is a long molecule of DNA that contains genes. There are 46 in each body cell. chromatin chromatid chromosome centromere centrosome 34. This is the set of rules that, relating the base triplet sequence of DNA to the corresponding codons of RNA, specifies a sequence of amino acids. a. ene expression b. genomics c. anticodons d. genetic code e. protein synthesis 35. This binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein during translation. a. mRNA b. rRNA c. tRNA d. DNA 36. a. b. c. d. 37. a. b. c. d. e. 38. a. b. c. d. e. Dr. D. This portion of a DNA segment does not code for a protein. RNA Intron Exon Polyribosome This process is division of the cytoplasm. mitosis meiosis cytokinesis cytosol centrioles During which phase do organelles duplicate and centrosome replication begin? Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Houston Community College Page 5 9. a. b. c. d. e. Normally how long does the G2 phase last? 8 hours 4-6 hours 2 hours 24 hours 1 day 40. During this phase the chromatin fibers condense and shorten into chromosomes that are visible under the microscope. a. Interphase b. Prophase c. Metaphase d. Anaphase e. Telophase 41. a. b. d. e. 42. a. b. c. d. The function and purpose of mitosis; production of gametes create more cilia production of proteins production of new cells During this phase a cleavage furrow forms. Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cell Structure (43 – 48) 43. In the diagram, which organelle is responsible for autophagy and autolysis? . C b. B c. F d. J e. K 44. In the diagram, which organelle is used to modify, sort and transport proteins? a. D b. I c. J d. K 45. a. b. c. d. In the diagram, which organelle aids movement of the cell? A G H D Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 6 46. a. b. c. d. 47. a. b. c. d. e. In the diagram, this structure directs cellular activities. D F G A In the diagram, what is used as a medium for chemical reactions? D F G H K 48. In the diagram this organelle contains the enzyme oxidase which oxidizes organic substances. a. C b. E c. I d. F MembraneProteins (49 – 51) 49. a. b. c. d. e. 50. a. b. c. d. e. 1. a. b. c. d. e. Which of the following represents a carrier protein? A B C D E Which of the following represents a receptor? B C D E A Which of the following represents a linker? B C D E A Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 7 Transport Across Membrane (52) Cell 52. In the diagram, which one represents facilitated diffusion? a. A b. B c. C d. Both a and c e. Both b and c Type of Solution (53) 53. In the diagram, which represents a hypertonic solution? a. A b. B c. C d. Both b and c e. All of the above one Protein Synthesis (54 – 55) 54. a. b. c. d. e. 55. a. b. c. d. e. What does this figure represent?

Fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane Cyotkinesis Mitosis Protein synthesis Organelle digestion Where would you see this occur? Nucleus Cytoplasm Smooth endoplasmic reticulum All of the above None of the above Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 8 Cell Division (56 – 58) 56. a. b. c. d. e. In the diagram, which one represents anaphase? A B C D E 57. In the diagram, which phase represents the kinetochore microtubules aligning the centromeres in the center of the cell? a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E 58. a. b. c. d. e. In the diagram, which phase has the formation of the centrosome? A B C D E Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 9