Organisational Change In The Sandwich Factory Management Essay

This study will research the type of leading manners are used in The Sandwich Factory. Kirsty Flower owns The Sandwich Factory which was established in 2005 by her and her co-workers that worked before manus together in similar industry. All the directors in the administration consist of adult females which form the Senior Management Team.

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Kristy ‘s leading manners integrate with modern leading theories in many different ways, one theory more than the other in some instances. The modern attacks to leading this study will look in deepness are Leader-member Exchange theory, Path-goal theory and ‘New ‘ leading.

The success or failure of The Sandwich Factory depends on Kirsty ‘s director leading qualities. “ Leadership is the activity of act uponing people to endeavor volitionally for group aims ” ( Kumar 2001: 190 ) . To win a leader demands have a motivated squad which can merely be achieved by the leader taking control every bit good as listening to the follower ‘s issues or demands.

The modern leading theories are normally found in today ‘s society amongst leaders. These theories can be applied in all types of administrations from a little concern to transnational cooperation ‘s. The attacks are farther often used instead than the older theories such as The Great Man theory and Trait theories. The modern leading theories take more into history the motive of subsidiaries, how the follower feels and considers the workers of import, it is them that lead to the success of the company.

Introduction to the Path-goal Theory attack

There are umteen types of modern attacks to leading, path-goal theory, leader member exchange theory and new leading – transformational/transactional leading. Subordinates have a batch more power in the modern attacks as compared to the older leading theories. Kirsty ‘s leading may be seen as reflective of modern leading theories and attacks as the grounds will demo how the manners incorporate with the instance survey. Kirsty has several leading manners ; Path-goal theory is one of the attacks which are used in The Sandwich Factory by Kirsty, the proprietor. An illustration of this manner is “ I have a vision and I try to do it clear to staff that we are in this together, all traveling the same manner towards one end ” ( Case Study: Week 5 ) . Kirsty is allowing all the followings know by this statement that there is a way and a mark and everyone is in it together as a squad. The function of the leader is to maneuver workers towards accomplishing the terminal end. “ Leadership besides motivates when it makes the way to the end clear and easy to go through coaching and waies, when it removes obstructions and barriers to achieving the end, and when it makes the work itself more personally fulfilling ” ( Northouse 2007: 128 ) .

There are many advantages to the Path-goal attack, Kirsty and the followings have common regard ; it is easier to pass on with subsidiaries when there is a flatter system and fewer channels to acquire through, the leaders manner is enlightening, encourages and supports the employees, and shows counsel in accomplishing ends. The theory works around context and the work puting instead than leader ‘s manner which occurs in the eventuality theory. “ The implicit in premise of path-goal theory is derived from anticipation theory, which suggests that subsidiaries will be motivated if they think they are capable of executing their work, if they believe their attempts will ensue in a certain result, and if they believe that the final payments for making their work are worthwhile ” ( Northouse 2007: 127 ) . The duty of the leader is to assist employees accomplish their mark, doing certain that the way to the terminal end is apprehensible and simple ; from this workers will go confident and be motivated for future undertakings. Subordinates will happen the work easily as the ends will be broken down and explained good by higher-ups.

There are besides flaws to the Path-goal attack ; the theory assumes the leader knows everything and has the qualities to give a clear way to followings to make their end. It besides presumes that subsidiaries will be motivated by the perceptual experience of the possibility of accomplishing a end and the leader is expected to hold a positive impact on the followings and actuate them irrespective of the state of affairs.

Introduction to the Leader-Member Exchange Theory attack.

The Leader-Member Exchange ( LMX ) theory is another attack which applies to the instance survey ; it is the lone theory that trades with in and out groups. All the employees seem to be in the in group ; fortunately The Sandwich Factory has no seeable out group. The in group has dyadic relationship with the leader where as the out group has more of a formal relationship with leader and are non felt a portion of the undertakings that are performed. These groups are created by the leader, if the followings agree to negociate with the leader so they will go a portion of in the group and will be farther more involved with current and possibly future undertakings depending if the person can maintain the leader satisfied with the criterion of public presentations. The occupation of the leader in the LMX theory is to guarantee that followings feel of import and alone member of the squad.

The LMX theory develops into two phases ; foremost the leaders initial feelings of the worker such as their personal and demographic features. Second the end product that is produced by the employee, the leader will judge if the undertakings completed are to criterions expected, on this footing the worker shall either bask high quality leader-member exchange or they shall be placed in the out group by the leader, where intervention will non be so pleasant.

An illustration of the LMX theory in the instance is when Kirsty mentions workers can add their ain input to the concern, these type relationships exist when the leader has a strong and stable relationship with employees which is a characteristic of this attack. “ I besides have to swear staff to be to the full committed to what we want and I`m open to any thoughts on how to do that vision a practical world ” ( Case Study: Week 5 ) . Kirsty has developed a loyal single relationship with all squad members which in consequence will make a greater end product as the Senior Management Team will be motivated by Kirsty ‘s influence.

One of the undeveloped parts of the theory is a follower from the in group is perceived to be good at all undertaking merely because the subsidiary is good at one undertaking “ For case, a member ‘s less than satisfactory occupation public presentation is tolerated because of the trueness he has shown to the leader ” ( Othman, Ee and Shi 2009: 340 ) . This implies that the leader may misconstrue the worker and misclassify their public presentation. This is a defect of the LMX attack which is major compared to other theories as it affects the quality of work. There can be changeless alteration within the groups, people possibly be dropped or may get down affecting themselves with in the in group depending on fortunes.

Introduction to the ‘New ‘ Leadership Theory attack

Transformational leading came into focal point in the early 1980 ‘s. This theory gives attending to magnetic and effectual facets of leading ; it changes and transforms subsidiaries as the name implies. “ It is concerned with emotions, values, moralss criterions, and long-run ends and includes measuring followings ‘ motivations, fulfilling their demands, and handling them as full human existences ” ( Northouse 2007: 175 ) . Kirsty ‘s leading manner can be seen every bit transformational as she is interested in on concentrating on assisting every member of the group win. Kirsty says “ I try to be manus on manus to clear up any issues the staff have ” ( Case Study: Week 5 ) .

One of the constituents of the transformational theory is Idealised influence ( personal appeal ) . This method the leader shows clear set of values that need to be followed and Acts of the Apostless as function theoretical account to the workers. “ This magnetic dimension of transformational leading is characterised by supplying a vision and a sense of mission, transfusing pride among the group, and deriving regard and trust ” ( Humphreys, Einstein 2003: 86 ) . The leader is seen as a hero by employees.

Kirsty is acquiring more out of her staff since they seem to be in high spirit at work. An illustration of this attack being applied in the instance survey is “ the staff seem to be happy and basking the degeneration of authorization and duty I`ve been able to give ” ( Case Study: Week 5 ) . This can be seen as single consideration to members of the squad that Kirsty feels can be developed to carry through more.

The defect of the attack is it tries to affect excessively many factors which can make confusion and uncertainness to the follower and the leader if it were excessively be practiced upon. Transformational theory is unlike other theories it does non take into consideration how the leader should move to peculiar state of affairss to be successful.

Transactional behavior is a portion of the modern theory attacks, which comes under the ‘New ‘ leading attack. It works by actuating subsidiaries and honoring or penalizing them depending on how good they perform with the undertakings. In this attack the leader has hold over the followings and expects the workers to execute to high criterions. Kirsty does non keep this type of manner ; her leading attack is more towards the Transformational theory which is more indulgent and considerate towards the follower.

The strengths and failings of Kristy ‘s leading – Path-goal theory attack.

There are many strong points and failing of Kirsty ‘s leading in The Sandwich Factory. The first attack that will be critically analysed is the Path-goal theory. This manner is concerned with how leading behavior can act upon the satisfaction and public presentation of a follower in an organizational scene. The Path-goal attack is about decreasing obstructors to make ends so honoring the employees for undertaking accomplishments. “ In kernel, the way end theory efforts to explicate the impact that leader behavior has on subsidiary motive, satisfaction and public presentation ” ( Jain 2005: 328 )

One of the strengths of the Path-goal attack is that it deals with a combination of factors. There are a few types of leading manners in the way end theory, the attack suggest that these behaviors should be used in different fortunes to actuate subsidiaries.

Supportive Leadership – the leader efforts to work out any concerns of the subsidiary, so if the follower is unsated the leader will demo echt support to assist decide the issue confronting the individual. “ The supportive leader likes a friendly environment and gives strong attending to the demands and well-being of his or her subsidiaries ” ( Silverthorne 2001: 151 ) . This type of attack is best used when occupations are tiring or nerve-racking e.g. auto fabrication mill.

Achievement Orientated Leadership – The leader has set high outlook for followings at this manner, disputing the employee to his/her fullest, trusting the subsidiary will stand out in their field, demoing assurance that they will accomplish ends set and execute good. “ Peoples who perform a assortment of undertakings may happen their occupations more satisfying and have less demand for societal support ” ( Marriner-Tomey 2004: 174 ) .

An illustration of this attack being applied in the instance survey is “ the staff seem to be happy and basking the degeneration of authorization and duty I`ve been able to give ” ( Case Study: Week 5 ) . This shows that subsidiaries are content and willing to take on excess undertakings.

The disadvantages of the Path-goal theory are it is excessively wide and attempts to affect all facets ( directing, supportive, participative and achievement oriented leading ) , and integrate all these together which makes it hard to really pattern upon the theory to the full. It besides does non explicate how these four types of attacks will impact the employees work. This leaves the practician with deficient cogent evidence how this theory will work in world and how it can be applied to an administration.


The strengths and failings of Kristy ‘s leading – Leader-Member Exchange attack.

As discussed earlier in the study the LMX theory relates to the instance, Kirsty and her friends that antecedently worked for Mr Bakes all moved across to get down a new company called The Sandwich Factory which consisted of Kirsty and several other co-workers as holding portion in the concern. The friends are perceptibly in the in group, which is considered a strength, where Kirsty has a strong relationship with these subsidiaries, who have been given a directors function “ Kirsty`s co-workers now hold senior places on the Senior Management Team ( SMT ) ( Human Resources, Finance and Production ) ” ( Case Study: Week 5 ) . Kirsty and the followings have common regard and trust towards one another which are strengths of the LMX theory.

The theory emphasises the importance of recognizing the being of in and out groups within the work topographic point. LMX theory is the lone leading theory that makes the construct of a relationship between leader and follower the centerpiece of the leading procedure. “ Leaderships in high quality LMX relationships rely to a great extent on followings to move in their position ( Dunegan et al. , 1992 ) and promote them to set about more responsible activities ( Graen and Uhl-Bien, 1995 ) ” ( Kang, Stewart 2007: 534 ) . In the interview Kirsty answered stating “ we all got on good with our old employer ” ( Case Study: Week 5 ) , this implies that the relationship must of been healthy with Mr Bakes administration. The in group has been carried frontward to Kirsty ‘s company The Sandwich Factory, one of the strengths of this attack.

It can be argued there are restrictions to the LMX theory, the out group are deprived of attending from the leader “ in the context of work groups, it is possible that such a state of affairs can be dissentious and undermine group public presentation ” ( Othman, Ee and Shi 2009: 340 ) . This type of behavior is can be seen as destructive leading as it upsets employees even though partly some of them may be content with their occupation and foreman. The out groups morale will be highly lower compared to the in group who will be basking a healthy relationship with the leader. Staff in the out group will non be so committed and motivated to make good in their occupations. The Sandwich Factory does non hold an out group merely yet this may be because the company is comparatively new and Kirsty leading manner will non let it for these types of fortunes to happen as they will hold negative reverberations.

First feeling of this theory will non be great to leaders and practicians as it displays unfairness and favoritism towards the out group as leaders are merely concerned with public presentation.

The strengths and failings of Kristy ‘s leading – ‘New ‘ Leadership attack.

Kirsty has transformational leading qualities, which is another modern leading attack, this besides known as ‘New ‘ Leadership which in add-on has Transactional Leadership. She takes control of state of affairss by conveying a clear vision of The Sandwich Factory ‘s ends and aims ; she has a passion for the work and the ability to do the followings feel re-energized. This type of leading consists holding a shared vision and integrity within the squad.

One of the strengths of transformational leading is to give clear way and involve others in developing the vision. This statement given by Kirsty in the Young Entrepreneur ( London ) Monthly relates to this theory “ The original thought to get down up the company was mine, but I needed people to come with me to do my vision work for the improvement of all involved in the company ” ( Case Study: Week 5 ) .

The transformational theory has become popular complete clip as it allows the leader to acquire the most out of the follower when executed in a considerate but professional mode. Bass ( 1990 ) suggests that by using the behavioral features of transformational leading, leaders can steer their followings toward public presentation beyond outlooks ( Humphreys and Einstein 2003: 85 ) .

The disadvantage of the transformational attack it depends on extremely skilled and developed employees to be exultant in undertakings assigned to them. Another unfavorable judgment about the theory is the attack presumes followings want alteration. This theory besides believes that leaders are people that can transform others around them. Then this brings up the inquiry, how certain are the followings that the leader is doing the right determination?

The Transactional theory is about the leader holding full control and authorization over subsidiaries. The leader makes it clear what is required from the follower. A signifier of transactional attack in the instance is when Kirsty says “ I found myself papering over some clefts that appeared in the early yearss when we had to acquire things done fast ” ( Case Study: Week 5 ) . Transactional leader works or a wages or punishment footing to actuate followings, if the employee reaches marks within a low budget so they will be given an inducement and if the worker fails the undertaking or is non complete on clip the worker will be punished or the leader will get down to do the follower feel uncomfortable.

The restriction of the transactional attack is that its primary focal point is on wagess and penalties. Rather than the growing and demands of employees which the transformational theory dressed ores on along with other manners, keeping a balance of what is of import.


All three modern leading theories and attacks have been identified in this study and how they have impacted subsidiaries every bit good as the leader. The path-goal theory motivates workers to do them experience that they can make the work and Kirsty uses this manner to promote subsidiaries that they can carry through undertakings. Transformational theory has the same type of thought but it seems less complex to utilize and use in The Sandwich Factory. The LMX attack is non widely used or applied but there are intimations of the theory with in the instance, largely sing the in groups that have been created in the company by Kirsty.

The full the manner through the instance survey Kirsty keeps mentioning to ‘we ‘ as the administration went through all different phases together e.g. “ we created a market ” , “ we had to acquire things done faster ” and so on. This is clear grounds that Kirsty does non merely see herself running The Sandwich Factory but strategically as squad, which shows great leading to come on frontward. Evidentially these modern leading theories have been used by Kirsty and have worked good. The analysis has revealed the strengths and failings of the modern leading attacks related to The Sandwich Factory.