Trait Theories C] Trait theories dominated the study of leadership up to the late sass’s. 0 Behavioral theories were popular until the late sass’s 11-7 Trait Theories (UDDI parker – 551) Leadership Traits: ; Ambition and energy ; The desire to lead ; Honesty & integrity ; Self-confidence ; Intelligence ; Job-relevant knowledge 11-8 D Trait theories assume that leaders are not made. C] The research studies focuses on personal traits or characteristics that distinguishes the leader form the followers & a successful leader from an unsuccessful leader.
C] Stodgily classified these traits into five categories : – Intelligence & Scholarship – Physical traits like age height, weight, strength etc.. – Personality characteristics by self-confidence, honesty, integrity, creativeness etc – Social status & experience & – Task orientation 11-9 McCall & Lombard: C] They identified 4 primary traits by which leaders could succeed or fail – Emotional stability & composure : calm, confident & predictable particularly when under stress. Admitting errors : Owning up mistakes rather than covering them up – Good interpersonal skills: Intellectual breadth: ability to understand wide range of areas Bennie & Thomas: C] In-depth interviews of more than 40 leaders they suggested 4 characteristics of effective leaders: Adaptive capacity Engaging others by creating shared meaning Voice integrity 11-10 Limitations: ; No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. ; The failure of early trait studies led researches in the late sass’s through the sass’s to go in a different direction. ; Trait research provides a basis for electing the right person for leadership. ; In contrast behavioral theories studies implied we could train people to be leaders. 1-11 Behavioral Theories University of Michigan 11-12 ; Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. ; Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. 11-13 Ohio State Studies Ohio State studies in the late sass’s sought to identify independent dimensions of a leader behavior. C] Beginning with more than thousand dimensions the studies narrowed the list to two that substantially accounted for most of leadership behavior described by employees.
C] They were: Initiating Structure and Consideration 11-14 0 A leader high in initiating structure is someone who: “Assigns group members to particular task”, “excepts workers to maintain definite standards of performance”, “emphasizes the meeting of deadlines” 0 A leader high in consideration is someone who: Helps employees with personal problems, C] Is friendly & approachable CLC Treats all employees as equal appreciates and supports 11-16 0 A recent review of 160 studies found that the followers of leaders high in consideration were more satisfied with their jobs, were more titivated and had more respect for their leaders.
CLC Initiating structure was strongly related to higher level of group & organizational productivity and positive performance evaluations. 11-17 University of Michigan Studies Objective: To locate behavioral characteristics of leaders that appear related to performance effectiveness. 11-18 The Managerial Grid Blake & Mouton (1962) 11-19 The EXHIBIT 11-1 11-20 11-21 D Authoritarian Leader (high task, low relationship) – Very much task oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic). Little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Ђ? They are very strong on schedules; – They expect people to do what they are told without question or debate; – when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it; so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop.
CLC Team Leader (high task, high relationship) – They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. 1 1-22 D Country Club Leader (low task, high relationship) This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. Incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members. C] Impoverished Leader (low task, low relationship) – A leader who uses a “delegate and disappear” management style. – They are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by lowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. 1-23 Advantages & Limitations 0 Advantages: – Grid training to analyze there leadership style which is administered through a questionnaire. – It can help leader to reach to the ideal state of 9,9 C] Limitations: – Model ignores the importance of internal & external limits, matters & scenario. – Other aspects of leadership can be covered but they are not covered. Summary: As important as traits & behaviors are In identifying effective or ineffective leaders they do not guarantee success, the context matters too. -24 Contingency Theories: Fiddler’s Model Cognitive Resource Theory Hershey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Path-Goal Theory 11-25 Assumptions The leader’s ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leader’s preferred style, the capabilities and behaviors of followers and also various other situational factors. Description C] Contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that contend that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others.
C] An effect of this is that leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change. 11-26 C] According to Fred Fiddler if an organization attempts to achieve group effectiveness through leadership then there is a need to access the leader according to an underlying trait, assess the situation faced by the leader & construct a proper match between the two.