Leader with a vivid impression have the authority over people who lead them towards progression (Allendale, 2002). Some say leaders are common people ho do exceptional things (Souses and Posses 1995, Peter and Waterman 1995). While others say it is a skill attained conditionally (De pre 1989). There are various beliefs about how one evolves into a fine leader. Different leadership characteristics and the manner of conducting oneself are needed and have been recognized as in cogent nurse leader. Apatite 1999, Tappet 2001). Good leaders are the ones who are made i. E. They require leadership qualities as they are subjected to a situation one cannot say they are born leaders. Good leaders develop through a routine in-depth study about oneself, education, experience, expertise, training and reflection Reflection is one aspect which can help a person to be an effective leader (Perrine and et. L 2001 Reflection is an aspect where leaders determine their own beliefs, attitudes, actions and their own beliefs, attitudes, actions and spur it helps leaders prevent drawbacks in other areas, makes most of genuine feedbacks. Identify limits of their insight and prevent recurrence of their mistakes. (Perrine and et. Al 2001). Dewey (1933) has a major influence over the ideas of reflective learning; he defined reflection as careful, active and continuous examination of belief or knowledge of a form in the view of the basis which supports it and results to the one it contributes.
Leadership is mainly about exercising control over someone in a manner that inspires others to follow towards an inclined outcome. Different authors have come up with different definitions of leadership, one of my favorites is “Leadership is the ability of developing and communicating a vision to a group of people that will make the vision true”. (Valuable, 2007). For Valuable leadership is about ones skill of developing oneself and make known a vision to a group where they would make it true.
Another definition y Sun Thus in the art of war ” the way (of leadership) means inducing the people to have the same aim as the leadership so that they will share death and life without fear of danger” (Sun Thus 2005) for Sun Thus, leadership is about a plan, relationship and a change that are kept together for one common vision that may call on those so aligned to act to surpass personal interest in self; it also identifies the combined change that leader and follower share in taking part in this vision both share the speculations and rewards in its quest.
There are several theories formulated to explain leadership and a umber of books are written in this aspect. The theories earlier were basically based on the behavior and characteristics of leaders whereas later its focus was more on the position of the followers. The Great man theory had the notion that leaders are extraordinary, and people born with natural qualities, ordained to lead (Tappet, 2001 ). Whereas the trait theory lists out the qualities related to leadership which prevails in plenty and continue to be generated. Marquis 2009). The units of trait theory dint have a conclusion so; another theory called Behavioral theory ancestress on what leaders do rather than their abilities (White and Lippie 1960). Ms. Gregory theory of X and Y says that the leadership policy is influenced by leaders beliefs about human nature (Ms Gregory, 1960). Another most substantial difference in leadership styles is between task and relationship focus (Blake, Mouton and Taper 1981).
The task focus leader is worried about getting the task done and focuses on actions that stimulate the team output whereas the relationship focus of the leader is engrossed with the interpersonal relationships and focuses on things done to meet the acquirement of the team members. (Tappet, 2001). Another theory called the contingency/situational school theory may help managers to develop certain behaviors to lead; they execute little directions as what represents an effective leadership in varied situations (Whitehead et. L, 2007). Fielder’s (1960) contingency model describes that there is not one leadership style that is perfect for every unit. He says the solution for a supervisory situation is deputed on factors that strike on the situation, 3 situations that define the task are, ‘leader member relationship, task structure, position power’. The Hershey -Blanchard model of leadership also takes a situational aspect where it submits that the development levels of a leader assistant plays the greatest role in identifying the apt leadership style.
Tantalum and Schmidt proposed plan that leadership behavior alters along a never ending process and that as one gets away from the autocratic point of participation and inclusion of the subordinate in making decisions increases, also suggested that leadership represented by democratic view of continuum will be hardly met in formal organization. Along the continuum it has 4 main leadership tales, autocratic, persuasive, consultative, democratic i. E. Telling, selling, consulting and joining style (Dandled, 2005).
Another model that focuses on the action-centered leader is who gets the work done through the team with association between coworkers (manager) and staff. The action centered leader must direct, support and co-ordinate the job to be done. (Spears and Lawrence 2004). Transformational theory is where leaders can convey their vision in a manner which is significant and inspiring that reduces contradiction. (Leach 2005). In Transactional theory Ms Guiro and Kennel, says that ‘the transactional leader sets goals, gives directions, uses rewards to reinforce employer behavior associated with meeting or exceeding established goals”.
The combined aspersion of the current years have redirected our concentration on the worth and conscience that underlie our leadership practice along with patient care (Dentally, 2005). To consider people who toil for you as people and also as worker is a part of Moral leadership (Spears and Lawrence, 2004). The leadership theory in servant leadership was coined by Robert K Greengage in 1969 which lays emphasis on he service concept where it includes people whose choice is to initially serve and then lead in a process of widening service to people and organization. Servant leadership debate, April 2003). Reflection is something which includes describing, analyzing, and evaluating ones beliefs, thoughts, assumptions and actions (Fade 2005). Dewey (1933) has a major influence over the ideas of reflective learning; he defined reflection as an active, continuous and careful examination Of belief/ form Of knowledge in a view of the basis that supports it and further results to which it contributes.
There are several models of reflection, Arises and Such¶n (1978) pioneered the idea of single and double loop learning . The theory was built around acknowledgement and improvement of an identifiable error. In later years Donald Scions model concept of reflective practice was started which looks at differentiating implicit knowledge essential for expert practitioners from theoretical or technical knowledge, defining the aspect as ‘reflection in action’ and ‘reflection on action’. (Chon, 1983).
There are various other models such as the Greenery 3-stage model, which is based on simple 3 stage plan>>do>>review>>cycle) experiential learning such as Kolas learning cycle where it is a structured reflection cycle where it is directly based on experiential learn inning where a happening experiment leads to learning and its application from a existing cycle to a newer cycle. (Greengage, 1988). Another model Gibbs reflective cycle (1988) has its roots from each stage of Kola’s cycle (Kola, 1 984) He suggested how a complete organized analysis of a scenario could take place using quick questioning at each stage.
Baud’s (1985) model of reflection heavily draws on the orbit of emotions; this cyclical model s with the result of a cycle being the ‘outcome’. Atkins and Murphy’s stage model of reflection (1994), goes through a 6 step model, firstly it looks at a new scenario, then your understanding, thoughts and opinions, then asks you to explain the situation and the essential issues of thoughts and opinions, later examining and acceptance of feelings thereby testing and evaluating, then it looks at its pertinence and its use finally recognizing and establishing future learning skills.
Role et. Al (2001) framework for reflective practice was based on the 3 stem questions which were ‘what’, ‘so what’, ‘now what’. It guides into analysis of a scenario, building upon the knowledge that has already been mastered through ones encounter. The Discords Model where, Terry Boron’s (1970) 3 stem questions were given by John Discords in (1994, 2000, and 2007) he matched the 3 trigger or initiating questions that can be used in the cycle completion in a practice.
Taylor model of reflection discusses about the mnemonic form of using the word REFLECT and inter relating concepts in two dimensional forms. Whereas the Johns model (John 1995,2006) through examining the conversation teen practitioner and their guides who worked with them throughout their experiences in learning, he used Barbara Carper’s way of knowing in his model (carper, 1978) that includes Aesthetics, Personal, Ethics and Emperies and also adds a note on Reflexivity. The most important aspect that is ARQ aired before anything possible in effective reflective practice includes being honest and frank.
Killings, (2000) states that a dedication to self investigation and preparedness to alter practice are significant if one wants to get the maximum out of this process. Much attention has been given to the importance of recording some tuitions or accumulated knowledge of an incident in a narrative form, particularly by the using the journals and reflective diaries. (Tercentenary, 1995 and Subterranean,1 999). This encourages a person to develop his qualities of frankness and motivation and also his way of doing things, i. E. Elf- awareness, problem solving, critical analysis, synthesis, evaluation, overall personal development (Richardson and Malady, 1995). If we discuss self- development, Left and Angina’s (1955) Shari Window model ‘Shari’ after their first names Joseph Left and Harry Ingram. This model became extensively used for training and insight of self-awareness, improving communications, personal development, group dynamics, inter;group relationships team development. It is said that reflection is a tool that helps nurses to learn from what they practiced (Atkins, Murphy and Graham).
The model that helps in reflection for practitioners is the Van Mane 1977 model where he talks about reflecting on past teaching abilities and improve their reciprocal action in the class in future. Here we have discussed many reflective theories used to describe the concept of reflection and that encourages it into action. Killings (2000) says that dedication to self-investigation and being ready to alter ones practice are essential if a person is to acquire maximum out of the process. Tried to reflect on my future prospects and my professional career as a major part of self development.
Fish and Twin (1997) four strands of reflection is the model I would like to use. This model is starting point for taking part in reflection and can be used to think further about both professional practice and teaching. The factual strand gives a narrative description of the processes and incident of a situation (what has happened, ND what the learner/practitioner did about it or felt). It stresses the prompt and seemingly patchy nature of the practice. To reflect, setting the scene is what is important. This was when was a lecturer before this course commenced.
To set the scene for the reader I am a very good teacher but, I haven’t learnt to prepare the slides for use, in presentations in my teaching sessions, although was good. There was one situation where the college was organizing a workshop and they gave the opportunity for a junior colleague to be a part of it rather than me, this made me really upset because I felt moored and a new comer was given priority. This feeling of mine motivated me to take some basic classes in developing my teaching skills by having a vision for the future where use Of computers would be the centre point for learning.
Pointing at the critical incidences where I felt unimportant, the retrospective strand is mainly implicated upon looking back at the entire situation and practice process holistically and looking at the events in a new way. This strand helps me to look back at what happened in the situation and what emotions I had to go through? It also discusses about how my colleague r management might have viewed this situation, and where do I stand in this situation of practice.
The sub-stratum strand the third strand is interested in revealing and surveying the, beliefs, assumptions and value judgments that are the basis of the situation and the plans which emerge in the first two strands, ‘the perspectives from formal theory and the theory and other professionals’ personal experience. This strand initiates professionals to withstand the concept that a scope of views exist about a process with no right answer. This is where I felt things were difficult to learn but being reactive and taking things as a challenge it helped me in learning and has become easy.
The connective strand is the last strand where all the gathered information from the other 3 strands are used explicitly to relate to the outer world in other situations, experiences, views, reflections, and actions of other professionals. (Fish and Twin, 1997). So out of this experience I think it is fair enough to give an opportunity to others or authorize others to a task where one can get motivated and it becomes easy to learn. After taking the 360 degree leadership assessment by Souses and Posses 1995) and getting the feedback of my two lecturers I was very much surprised looking at the scores.
The areas where thought I was strong enough I was not very good after the assessment, here identified one question where was scored 4 and that’s the least one, that’s listening. So keeping this development need in mind I would like to reflect upon my past experiences and develop my leadership skills by overcoming this. The previous theories discussed regarding the role of leader as a frontal figure showing how different he is from the group and the leads the rest of the people.
One theory that discusses about the importance of leaders relationship with his subordinates, he says not that all the leaders should stay in front but a leader should also have the ability to follow. Not the owner he leads but also being a servant who follows. With this leadership model would like to use to critically analyze my weakness and develop my leadership skills. The servant leadership emphasizes on prime, importance of personal characteristics and beliefs over any kind of leadership styles. Robert K Greengage framed his first essay, the model talks about the core heartsickness. (Russell and Stone 2002).
Spears 1998 recognizes 10 servant leadership characteristics those are “listening empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to peoples growth and building community” (Spears, 1998). Deeper 1989 says the best communication pressurize you to listen. Greengage says listening is a tool for communicating accurately and demonstrating respect for others. Listening, is a deep dedication of listening to others, being highly attentive, understanding others (Tutor, 2001 ; Secretary, 996, Greengage, 1970/1 991; Fricke and Spears, 1996 and Bennie and Goldsmith, 1997).
Greengage stresses on the need for being quiet, meditating, reflecting and active listening and basically “hearing’ thefts told and not told. One should take opportunity to reflect on their piece of work and their personal listening/hearing they may make efficient judgments for their pupils if in education field. According to my scores I need to concentrate a bit more on this aspect in order to develop my leadership qualities. According to Stephen R Covey (1989) in his book “The Seven habits of highly effective people”, he explains about the 5th habit i. E. Eek first to understand and then to be understood, that talks about listening, to understand, for enjoyment, obtaining information and to learn. To be a good listener one must practice “active listening”. Empathy- A servant-leader attempts to understand and engages to show empathy for others. Secretary (1996) says empathy is “identifying with the thoughts, feelings, and perspectives of others” and proposes that “civility is built upon empathy”. Leaders who empathic with others and follow this are more likely to gain trust from them. Healing- The revert-leader has the capability to heal his own self on also others.
Stunning (1998) writes extensively about stages of healing leadership. Gardener (1998) proposes that healing comes through being quiet and a “quiet presence is an act of renewal”. Awareness- a servant-leader has a common awareness, mainly self-awareness. One cultivates awareness through self-reflection, listening to others to what they say about us, always being ready to learn, and by connecting from knowledge and belief to saying and doing. “Walking your talk” (Bennie and Goldsmith, 1997, p. 70-71). Conceptualization- the leader minds to rear their abilities to visualize great visions.
Servant-leaders require a dream to lead the organization successfully towards achieving the objective. Foresight- is the skill to foresee or know the probable outcome of a situation. Educators are to develop foresight through their classroom experiences. Greengage (1 970/1 991 ) states that its better than a standard guess about “what’ is to happen “when,” in future. Stewardship- Greengage says all members of an institution plays important roles in building their institutions in trust for society betterment by caring the individual needs in institution.
Commitment to the groom of people- The leader is committed to the growth of individual beings and does everything to develop others. Deeper (1989) says, ‘The signs of outstanding leadership appear primarily among the followers. Are the followers reaching their potential? Are they learning? Serving’? Building the community as, the increase in more institutions have crumbled community, this is one that suites person in society by understanding this theory. Picot considers the idea Of community saying that the person who supplies or who ventures into the growth of the immunity has great status.
To actually relate this servant leadership model to my reflective learning as Segregation (1992) states that “servant-leadership is more easily provided if the leader understands that serving others is important, but that the most important thing is to serve the values and ideas that shape the school”. In the context of teaching profession, it provides a base for listening, speaking, problem solving and during conflicts. This model supports both professional and personal growth, mainly qualifies a nurse or a teacher to be a leader and get the satisfaction.
A Taoist leader said a leader should put himself on a anaphora with the others entangled, depending upon the control over the knowledge and personality to acquire respect (Adair 2002). The above essay examines how the leadership development can be made better by encouraging people to involve themselves in critical reflection. Where, I reflected on what my past experience was and how this theory helped to cope and develop my professional skills for my self-development. It also focuses on the integration of reflection in leadership development to critically analyze my strengths and weaknesses.