If consumers experience dissatisfaction with merchandises or services and are unable to obtain satisfaction from Sellerss or makers, they may turn for aid to a assortment of consumer ailment bureaus. Therefore, a 3rd party can be the following measure for consumers to better their satisfaction if they still dissatisfied with the company ‘s response. Few consumers really complain straight to the maker or service supplier, so concerns may be incognizant of consumer ailment actions ( Day, Grabicke, Schaetzel, and Stauchbach, 1981 ; Stephens and Gwinner 1998 ) . Franklin ( 1992 ) believes that ‘consumer ailments ‘ is correlated with demands for more authorities ordinance and intercession in the market topographic point. From a managerial position, ailments represent potentially valuable information in steering selling scheme. Further, from a public policy position, ailments may help the development and targeting of consumer protection and market regulative programmes ( Fornell and Westbrook, 1979 ) . Hence, ailments can supply an qui vive to the distribution channel of the authorities ordinance that needs rectification in the concern, and gives the company an chance to convert the client to go on patronizing their shops and purchasing their merchandises. Therefore, in the market topographic point, effectual ailment direction must be a precedence for every concern, as the kicking behavior provides companies with a opportunity to rectify the dissatisfaction and, finally, to retain loyal clients ( Franklin, 1992 ; Davidow and Dacin, 1997 ) .
Balasubramaniam ( 1984 ) suggests that consumer protection may consist constabularies and actions affecting authorities intercession to guarantee that all consumers obtain what they truly want. The increasing demand for consumer protection is a modern phenomenon, and attempts are being made by authoritiess to obtain greater enforcement from Torahs, nevertheless, these Torahs are non considered as peculiarly helpful to consumers for affairs refering to merchandise descriptions ( Financial services, lodging, nutrient, etc ) , door-to-door gross revenues, distance merchandising, and safety of peculiar merchandise ; consumers should be provided more protection by legislative acts ( Rachagan, 1998 ) . Therefore, several Asiatic states, including Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Papua-New Guinea, have enacted legislative acts specifically titled as “ Consumer Protection Acts/Codes ” for consumers to work out specific jobs. Most research on consumer ailment behavior is conducted in the U.S. ( e.g. Bearden and Mason, 1984 ; Day, 1984 ; Davidow and Dacin, 1997 ) , Canada ( e.g. Barnes and Kelloway, 1980 ; Lau and Ng, 2001 ) , and European states such as Norway ( e.g. Gronhaug and Arndt, 1980 ) , the Netherlands ( Morel, Poiesz and Wilke, 1997 ) and the U.K. ( Crosier and Erdogan, 2001 ) . Based on the different cultural scenes, ailment issues in Asiatic states are deficient ( e.g. Phau and Sari, 2004 ; Keng, Richmond and Han, 1995 ; Lau and Ng, 2001 ) . Therefore, to understand ailment behavior and consumer orientation in the selling system of Asiatic consumers is highly of import for their endurance.
Based on old surveies, this study provides a basic model for seeking damages to demo the chief deciding factors that influence the ultimate determination to kick to the houses, 3rd party bureaus and take tribunal action through the purpose variable. The intent of this survey is to look into the motive for seeking damages from the houses and the 3rd party ailment procedure, particularly from the Malayan consumers ‘ position.
In fact, the purpose can alter over clip based on the person ‘s probationary nature. Human behavior can be considered under volitional control since the person is prepared to exercise maximal attempt. Thus, purpose can impact human actions, and the relation between purpose and action can be seen as the ends and programs that guide behavior ( Ajzen, 1985 ) . Singh ( 1988 ) proposes a two-stage scheme explicating that consumers normally engage in multiple ailment behavior. The first measure is consumer ailment purposes. He reports the alone dimensions that support consumer ailment behavior responses due to the comparative strength of the different consumer ailment behavior options ( i.e. purposes ) . It should non merely be based on the behavior that they did/did non prosecute in. In the 2nd measure, consumer ailment behavior is explained as consumers taking action for their dissatisfaction for an independent state of affairs. Kim, Kim, Im and Shin ( 2003 ) besides argue that consumer ailment purpose is an result of the consumer ‘s attitude positions, instead than complaint behavior, as they noted that purpose is much better predicted and explained by attitude than behavior. Therefore, complaint purpose plays the interceding function to explicate the consumer ‘s attitude and ailment action in this survey. Harmonizing to the old surveies, the current survey efforts to look into how the variables, such as the cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus, perceptual experience of concern patterns and reactivity to ailments and the importance of the merchandise, act upon the ailment purpose and ailment action.
Knowledge of Consumer Rights and Consumer Agencies
Mentioning to societal behavior, Ajzen ( 1985 ) suggests that information that is recognized by the persons will finally act upon their farther behavior ; Ormrod ( 1999 ) proposes that support responses merely addition while the scholar is cognizant of the connexion. Singh and Wilkes ( 1996 ) suggest that an person ‘s larning about mechanisms and options of kicking affect consumer ailment behavior, such as cognition of unjust patterns, consumer rights, and ailment channels. Agbonifoh and Edoreh ( 1986 ) argue that market imperfectnesss are one of the market factors that make consumers experience helpless when they face discontent. Hence, consumer protection is one of the reactions to alter the consumer ‘s weakness. Steering the consumers to bask their rights and the consciousness of the being of ordinances and commissariats becomes of import when they encounter defeat or depression about the disgruntled merchandises or services ( Agbonfoh and Edoreh, 1986 ) . Therefore, consciousness of consumer ‘s rights and consumer protection bureaus is of import for consumers doing the determination to right their dissatisfaction to houses or 3rd party. Moyer ( 1985 ) found that whiners with comparatively good information refering their consumer rights and who are more cognizant of possible aid from 3rd parties are more active in seeking information and more likely to show their dissatisfaction to Sellerss. Day ( 1984 ) suggests that consumer ‘s cognition about where to kick affects the consumer ‘s ailment behavior. Based on Haefner and Leckenby ( 1975 ) , and Tipper ( 1997 ) , in the current survey, cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus is defined as the single consciousness and apprehension of consumer rights and consumer protection bureaus in Malaysia.
An person ‘s cognition or information is the footing for influence on human behavior ( Ajzen, 1985 ) . Day and Landon ( 1976 ) suggest that consumers who are less knowing will seldom seek damages for their discontent with merchandises or services. Moyer ( 1985 ) found that whiners who seek more information and have more involvement in the consumer protection Torahs are more active in showing their dissatisfaction to Sellerss. Tipper ( 1997 ) found that cognition of consumer rights has a important positive influence on 3rd party damages. It can be viewed that American consumers with more cognition about consumer rights are more inclined to use federal bureaus and legal action as their 3rd party damages options than other consumers. Ajzen ( 1985, 1991 ) suggests that purpose can be used as a interceding variable between the information variable and specific action. Mentioning to the limited old literature, the hypotheses on cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus with ailment behaviors can be stated as follows:
Hypothesis 1a: Consumers with more cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus are more likely to hold high ailment purpose.
Hypothesis 1b: Consumers with more cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus are more likely to take ailment action.
Hypothesis 1c: Ailment purpose will intercede the relationship between cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus and ailment action.
Percept of Business Practices and Responsiveness to Complaint
Keng, Richmond and Han ( 1995 ) find that market factors should act upon consumer ailment behavior, such as a concern ‘s repute for quality and service, and the reactivity of the concern to ailments. Moyer ( 1985 ) found that whiners hold negative outlooks refering an organisation ‘s reactivity to their ailments, they feel that 3rd party actions are on behalf of the consumer. Granbois, Summers and Frazier ( 1977 ) delineate that consumer ‘s perceptual experience about a house ‘s willingness to supply damages has the most important correlativity with ailment behavior. Jacoby and Jaccard ( 1981 ) discuss that marketing channel factors affect consumer ailment behavior. Richins ( 1982 ) points out that the efficaciousness of complaining and the retail merchants ‘ willingness to work out ailments can be a major factor in consumers ‘ ailment behavior. If the client reactivity or firm-related failure from houses or concern causes the single dissatisfaction, consumers are more likely to state others about their sadness since they tend to comprehend the house to be at mistake, and consumers may experience angry and desire to ache the house ‘s concern ( Lau and Ng, 2001 ) . Crie ( 2003 ) suggests that purchaser ‘s and marketer ‘s interaction frequence plays a portion in the penchant for verbal ailment action. Based on the old literature reappraisal, the repute of the concern pattern and the retail merchants ‘ willingness to turn to ailments causes consumer ‘s dissatisfaction and may act upon the consumers ‘ ailment behavior ( Richins, 1982 ; Keng, et al. , 1995 ; Phau and Sari, 2004 ; Lau and Ng, 2001 ; Crie, 2003 ; Liu and McClure, 2001 ; Weiser, 1995 ) . In the current survey, perceptual experience of concern patterns and reactivity to ailments can be defined as the consumer ‘s perceptual experience about house ‘s patterns and house ‘s reactivity to their ailment ( Keng, et al. , 1995 ) .
To analyze the ailment purpose, Richins ( 1982 ) found that if consumers perceive that a concern is willing to rectify the ailment they are more likely to do a ailment, they feel that complaining is worth the attempt. Sing foretelling complaint action from concern patterns and reactivity to ailments, Richins ( 1982 ) found that if whiners believe that concern reactivity is low, they are more likely to take ailment action. Phau and Sari ( 2004 ) found that Indonesian whiners have a negative perceptual experience refering concern pattern and reactivity to complaint. Mentioning to 3rd party ailment actions, Tipper ( 1997 ) found that American consumers with a negative feeling about concern pattern and reactivity to complaint are more likely to turn to their ailment to the Better Business Bureau, Consumer Agency, State Attorney General ‘s Office, Federal Agency and take legal action. Ajzen ( 1985, 1991 ) suggests that purpose can be used as a interceding variable between the attitudinal ( perceivable ) variable and specific action. Therefore, the hypothesis in this survey proposes that:
Hypothesis 2a: Consumers with a positive perceptual experience of concern pattern and reactivity to complaint will be more likely to hold high ailment purpose.
Hypothesis 2b: Consumers with a negative perceptual experience of concern pattern and reactivity to complaint will be more likely to take ailment action.
Hypothesis 2c: Ailment purpose will intercede the relationship between the perceptual experience of concern pattern and reactivity to complaint and complaint action.
Importance of Merchandise
By and large, consumers tend to comprehend that high quality merchandises or services have a high monetary value and if the quality of the merchandise or service is below their outlook they will be discontent. Day ( 1977 ) suggests that the higher the monetary value of the merchandises or services, the higher the outlook will be performed, and luxury merchandises can act upon the consumers ‘ position. Keng, et Al. ( 1995 ) specify the consumers ‘ perceptual experience of the importance of the merchandise as the monetary value of the merchandise, how socially seeable the merchandise is, and the lastingness and frequence of utilizing the merchandise, all of which may act upon ailment behavior. Therefore, the importance of the merchandise can impact consumer ailment behavior ( Keng, et al. , 1995 ; Phau and Sari, 2004 ) . In the present survey, the importance of the merchandise can be defined as the monetary value of merchandise, used often, socially seeable and used for a long period.
Day ( 1977 ) found that if the existent public presentation of the merchandise or service dilutes the consumer ‘s position, they will be more likely to do a ailment. Jacoby and Jaccard ( 1981 ) argue that consumers with higher information sing their dissatisfaction are more likely to take ailment action. Phau and Sari ( 2004 ) found that merchandises that reflect the consumer ‘s position, or are used often, or over a long period of clip, and expensive unsatisfactory merchandises, affect the consumer ‘s ailment action for Indonesian consumers. Keng, et Al. ( 1995 ) found that if the monetary value of the merchandise is high, the more socially seeable the merchandise, or the quality of the merchandise is faulty, consumers are more likely to take ailment action. Ajzen ( 1985, 1991 ) suggests that purpose can be used as a interceding variable between the attitudinal ( perceivable ) variable and specific action. Therefore, the hypothesis is stated as the followers in the current survey:
Hypothesis 3a: Consumers with a perceptual experience that the unsatisfactory merchandise is expensive, is used often, seen by others and is used for a long period of clip, are more likely to hold high ailment purpose.
Hypothesis 3b: Consumers with a perceptual experience that the merchandise is expensive, is used often, seen by others and is used for a long period of clip, are more likely to take ailment action.
Hypothesis 3c: Ailment purpose will intercede the relationship between the importance of the merchandise and complaint action.
Complaint Intention and Complaint Action
In both the TRA ( Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975 ) and TPB ( Ajzen, 1991 ) theoretical accounts, the purpose concept is considered as the mediation function between the beliefs and the behavior. Godin and Kok ( 1996 ) specify the purpose as “ the uttered motive to execute some behavior or accomplish some end ” ( p. 94 ) . Ajzen ( 1991 ) suggests that purpose can be referred to the sum of attempt a individual exerts to prosecute in existent behavior. Ajzen and Driver ( 1992 ) argue that purpose can be assumed to “ capture the motivational factors that influence behavior, it is indicants of how difficult people are willing to seek, of how much of an attempt they are be aftering to exercise, in order to execute the behavior ” ( p. 208 ) . Hence, the more an single intends to transport out, the more likely he or she will make. Ajzen ( 2001 ) suggests that purpose plays “ an of import function in steering human action ” and it can “ execute a purposive behavior ” in a specific context ( p. 47 ) .
Ajzen and Driver, ( 1992 ) suggest strong purposes of persons to prosecute in behavior or to accomplish their behavioral ends. Hurbes and Ajzen ( 2001 ) found that purpose contributes significantly and gives a positive anticipation of runing behavior. Singh ( 1988 ) found that consumers with private and 3rd party ailment purpose are really more occupied in private and 3rd party actions. Richins ( 1982 ) besides suggests that a leaning to kick is significantly related with existent behavior. Therefore, the stronger purposes from consumers to prosecute in ailment actions, the more successful they are predicted. The proposition between ailment purpose and ailment actions shows as followers:
Hypothesis 4: Consumers with a higher purpose of seeking damages for kicking are more likely to take action on their ailments.
In conformity with old surveies, this survey prefers to handle each factor as separate constructs that can act upon the consumer ‘s purpose and actions in the research model ( see Figure 1 ) .
H1c / H2c / H3c
Percept on Business Practices and Responsiveness to complaint
Knowledge of Consumer Rights and Consumer AgenciesFigure 1: The Research Framework
METHODS OF THE STUDY
The information in this research was collected by a study affecting self-administered questionnaires. The population and sample were Malayan citizens shacking in Kuala Lumpur, Peninsular Malaysia. To supply an equal degree of assurance, this present research used 700 as the mark sample size. In order to capture this targeted sample size of respondents, 1,200 respondents in three shopping promenades, the Tribunal for Consumer Claims in Kuala Lumpur and the National Consumer Complaints Centre were intercepted and requested to take part in the survey from February 2007 to the terminal of April 2007. Finally, a sum of 834 study questionnaires were found to be useable in this survey.
The concepts used in the questionnaire were derived from old research based on the literature reappraisal. The questionnaires were produced in three linguistic communications – English, Chinese and Malay. The concluding research questionnaire consisted of four parts. The first portion included 7 statements to mensurate the cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus variables, which were adapted from Haefner and Leckenby ( 1975 ) , and Tipper ( 1997 ) . A 7 point Likert-scale from 1 = really hapless to 7 = excellent were used in this subdivision. The following subdivision concerned 10 statements on the respondent ‘s perceptual experience of concern pattern and reactivity to the ailment variable, which were adopted from Kim, et Al. ( 2003 ) and 4 statements on the importance of merchandise variable, which were adopted from Phau and Sari ( 2004 ) . Seven point Likert-scales from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly hold were used in the 2nd portion. Another 10 statements of the ailment actions that consumers intended to take were adopted from Singh ( 1988 ) . Seven point Likert-scales from 1 = really improbable to 7 = really likely were used to mensurate the ailment purpose variable in portion three. The last portion included 5 statements which measured the ailment actions that consumers had taken ( Yes/No ) by utilizing the Guttman graduated table, this variable was adopted from Singh ( 1988 ) .
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
As discussed in the survey of Garver and Mentzer ( 1999 ) , the Structural Equation Model ( SEM ) is a powerful technique that combines the measuring theoretical account ( collateral factor analysis ) and the structural theoretical account ( path analysis ) into a coincident statistical trial and provides a measuring theory and a structural theory ( Hair, et al. , 2006 ) . In this study, the SEM was used as the chief statistical analysis tool to sublimate the measuring points and AMOS 5.0 was used for proving the hypothesis relationship.
Confirmatory Factor Analysis ( CFA )
Harmonizing to Anderson and Gerbing ( 1988 ) , and Hair, et Al. ( 2006 ) , the first appraisal should be any structural theoretical account that exists with an acceptable goodness-of-fit. Therefore, it could get down by suiting a CFA theoretical account that includes covariance between all braces of latent factors. In this paper, the overall tantrum for the base measuring theoretical account were hapless – GFI=0.886, AGFI=0.861, TLI=0.873, CFI=0.884, RMSEA=0.057 and CMIN/DF=2.693. In order to better the theoretical account fit indices, points PBR4, PBR7, KNLEG2, KNLEG3, and KNLEG4 were deleted from the base theoretical account due to the lower factor burden and high alteration indices. After omission, the overall tantrum for concluding the measuring theoretical account in the standardization sample was first-class, with GFI=0.928, AGFI=0.913, TLI=0.917, CFI=0.927, RMSEA=0.045 and CMIN/DF=2.693.
Testing the Hypothesiss
Once an acceptable measuring theoretical account is available, the structural theoretical account rating should be able to get down. The consequences of the structural theoretical account show that the theoretical account achieved a good degree of tantrum, I‡2 = 902.067, I‡ 2 / df = 2.693, GFI = 0.928, AGFI = 0.913, TLI = 0.917, CFI = 0.927, RMSEA = 0.045. The consequence besides reported that 13.6 per cent of the discrepancy associated with ailment purpose was accounted for by its three forecasters: cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus, perceptual experience on concern patterns and reactivity to complaint and importance of merchandise. Consequently, it was determined that 35.3 per centum of the fluctuation in ailment action was accounted for by its four forecasters including ailment purpose.
Testing the Hypotheses on the Complaint Intention
Analyzing the relationship between the independent variables and the ailment purpose, Hypothesis 1a, ( see Table 1 ) sing the cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus on the ailment purpose, was supported ( P = 0.000, I? = 0.295 ) . It explained that if consumers with more cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus, they would be more likely to do ailments. This consequence approved the suggestion from Day and Landon ( 1976 ) . The consequence did non back up Hypothesis 2a ( see Table 1 ) about the perceptual experience on concern patterns and reactivity to complaint ( p = 0.370, I? = 0.039 ) . This means that consumers ‘ perceptual experience on concern patterns and reactivity to ailments has no important relationship with the ailment purpose. This consequence was consistent with the survey of Halstead and Droge ( 1991 ) . Mentioning to Hypothesis 3a ( see Table 1 ) , the consequences show that the importance of merchandise significantly influences the ailment purpose ( p = 0.000 ; I? = 0.219 ) . This consequence indicates that if consumers perceive that the merchandise is expensive, is used often, is seen by others and is used for a long period of clip, they are more likely to mean to do a ailment. This consequence is proved in the survey of Day ( 1977 ) .
Table 1: Hypothesiss Test on Complaint Intention
& lt ; –
& lt ; –
& lt ; –
* : P & lt ; 0.001
Testing the Hypotheses on the Complaint Action
To prove the hypotheses on the ailment action, Hypothesis 1b ( see Table 2 ) , sing the cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus on the ailment actions, was supported ( p = 0.000, I? = 125 ) . It could be explained that consumers with more cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus are more likely to take ailment action. Mentioning to hypothesis 2b ( see Table 2 ) , the perceptual experience on concern patterns and reactivity to complaint showed a negative marginally influence on the ailment action due to p = 0.000, I? = -0.063. This consequence is consistent with the findings from Richins ( 1982 ) and Tipper ( 1997 ) . It could be explained that Malayan consumers with a negative feeling about concern pattern and reactivity to complaint are more likely to take ailment action against the houses or the 3rd party. Testing hypothesis 3b ( see Table 2 ) , the importance of merchandise showed a negative important relationship with ailment action to the houses or the 3rd parties ( p = 0.000, I? = -0.211 ) . This consequence does non back up the hypothesis due to the negative relationship between the importance of merchandise and the ailment action. Sing the relationship between ailment purpose and ailment action, the consequences ( see Table 2 ) support hypothesis 4 ( P = 0.000 ; I? = 0.552 ) . This means that one time the whiners have a strong purpose to seek damages, they will decidedly take action to acquire farther satisfaction on their disgruntled merchandises or services from the 3rd parties or the concerns. These consequences confirm the suggestion of Ajzen ( 1985, 1991 ) and Singh ( 1988 ) .
Table 2: Hypothesis Trial on Complaint Action
& lt ; –
& lt ; –
& lt ; –
& lt ; –
* : P & lt ; 0.001 ;
m: marginally important
Testing Hypothesiss on Interceding Consequence
A mediating consequence is created when a 3rd variable/construct intervenes between two other related concepts that explain how or why each forecaster variable influences the standard. Testing the mediation effects, Hair et Al. ( 2006 ) suggest that if the indirect consequence of the variable is higher than 0.08, it indicates a mediating consequence. If the p-value of the independent variable and interceding variable, interceding variable and dependent variable, independent variable and dependant variable, are important, partial mediation will be proved ; if the p-values of the independent variable and interceding variable, interceding variable and dependent variable, are important, full mediation will be proved. Table 3 shows the hypotheses on the mediation consequence in this survey.
Sing Hypothesis 1c, the determination in Table 3 shows that the indirect consequence of the cognition of consumer rights and ailment bureaus on the ailment actions was 0.163, which was higher than 0.08, and the p-value for cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus and ailment purpose, ailment purpose and ailment action, cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus and ailment action were all important. Therefore, complaint purpose to the full mediated the relationship between the cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus and the ailment action. Following the same process, the indirect consequence of the perceptual experience on concern patterns and reactivity to complaint showed 0.022 ( & lt ; 0.08 ) , therefore, Hypothesis 2c was non supported. Mentioning to hypothesis 3c, the indirect consequence was 0.121 ( higher than 0.08 ) thereby demoing a mediating consequence. Based on the p-value of the direct consequence ( importance of merchandise and complaint purpose ) , this survey found that ailment purpose had full mediation on the relationship between importance of merchandise and complaint action. Therefore, H3c was supported.
Table 3: Direct and Indirect Effect on the Mediation Variable
Type of Mediation
DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
Most old surveies in the consumer ailment behavior have focused on the two-group typology, which consists of whiners and non-complainers ( Kim, Kim, Im and Shin, 2003, Keng, et al. , 1995 ; Phau and Sari, 2004 ) . This survey offers a broader categorization, which is consumers doing ailments to the houses and 3rd parties. The model in the present paper has provided valuable information refering the consumer ‘s motive for seeking damages based on the consumers ‘ apprehension of consumer rights and consumer protection, market factor and importance of merchandise or services and degree of dissatisfaction. Hopefully, the development of this theoretical account provides a footing for future research on researching consumer ailment behavior.
Although a 3rd party ailment bureau is one attack to help organisations managing the dissatisfaction with consumers together, it is unfortunate that many organisations ne’er realize the importance of ailment handling. Consequently, for bettering a ailment managing direction programme, concern, policy shapers in authoritiess and consumer organisations must understand how these factors influence ailment behavior, and develop schemes for act uponing variables and complaint behavior as follows.
Harmonizing to the cognition of consumer rights and consumer bureaus, it contributed an of import value to foretell consumer ailment behavior. The practical deduction for policy shapers in authoritiess or consumer administrations is that they should supply more attacks to educate consumers about their rights and duties as consumer instruction concerns the necessary accomplishments, attitudes, cognition and apprehension to go an effectual consumer ( Brennan and Ritters, 2004 ) . This instruction can assist consumers to obtain the accomplishments and cognition needed to do accommodations to their picks and better the consumer ‘s assurance to take action in their life. Thus, consumer instruction along with effectual ordinances and entree to good quality advice and information from authorities or consumer administrations are indispensable constituents against the irresponsibleness or unethical concern in the market place.
Mentioning to the market factor, the consequences show that consumer ‘s perceptual experience of concern pattern and reactivity to ailments is non an of import factor in analyzing the ailment action. Therefore, as concern directors and executives, they should recognize the importance of ailment handling. Organizations can educate consumers by concentrating the ailment procedure on taking the fright of confrontation and bullying factors. Firms can offer some compensation to the dissatisfied consumer and should non kick about the excess attempt or cost involved, and see each client as a prospective purchaser when they make a ailment. For consumers who perceive a higher cost of kicking when they are unable to reach the organisation, the company can offer a generic brochure that is distributed to consumers explicating how to efficaciously acquire in touch with the organisations to increase consumer assurance and purchase purpose ( TARP, 1986 ) . Businesss may promote consumers to do a ailment by following schemes that shift the incrimination off from the consumers, such as by replacing the merchandise or service with which they are dissatisfied for free. Therefore, the manner of ailment handling can develop a good image for the houses and aid heighten selling effectivity in the long tally.
Keng, Richmond and Han ( 1995 ) found that whiners are more likely to fall back to complaint action if the monetary value of the merchandise is high or the quality of the merchandise is faulty than the non-complainers. This research found that consumers intended to doing ailments if they feel dissatisfied with the merchandise or the merchandise was expensive, was used often, seen by others and was used for a long period of clip. Therefore, the houses should pay particular attending to ailments refering expensive lasting merchandises ; the marketer should be trained to manage ailments good, and the house should non raise consumer ‘s outlooks on the merchandises.
However, certain restrictions of the survey should be noted. First, the findings are limited to the specific sample. The limitation of the sample frame to the National Consumer Complaint Centre and the Tribunal for Consumer Claims in Kuala Lumpur minimizes the generalizability of the consequences. Further surveies are needed to analyze the proposed model in a broader scope that might include other 3rd party ailment bureaus, such as the Consumers Association and the Tribunal for Consumer Claims in other provinces.
Second, people from different cultural groups may hold different attitudes sing ailments. This survey provides a sample with people by ethnicity based on the Malayan population distribution of 50:30:20 ( Malayans: Chinese: Indians ) . This survey comprises 395 Malay respondents, 313 Chinese and 126 Indian respondents. As the Indian group merely consisted of 126 respondents, this sample size is non an equal appraisal to foretell each of the three kicking groups, which are ailments through the houses, National Consumer Complaint Centre and Tribunal for Consumer Claims Malaysia, because the sample size was less than 150 as suggested by Hair, et Al. ( 2006 ) . Therefore, for future surveies the research worker suggests utilizing multi-group analysis with SEM to foretell the attitudinal differences on ailment behaviors based on the different ethnicity.
Third, the sample respondents were selected on the ailments in the companies, National Consumers Complaint Centre and Tribunal for Consumer Claims Malaysia. This survey merely examines these three groups of whiners together but does non prove the influences of the three groups individually. Therefore, the research worker suggests that future surveies can look into how assorted factors may act upon different types of ailment action otherwise.