Chemical Level of Organization

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization Multiple Choice 1. a. b. c. d. e. 2. a. b. c. d. e. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. e. 5. a. b. c. d. e. 6. a. b. c. d. e. 7. a. b. c. d. e. 8. a. b. c. d. What are the major elements found in the body?

Nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, sodium Hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, calcium Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen Oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium Potassium, phosphorus, sodium, hydrogen The subatomic particles that make up atoms include: Neutrons, quarks, muons Protons, neutrons, electrons Muons, positons, neutrons Electrons, quarks, protons Positons, protons, neutrons Which of the following particles has a neutral charge? Neutron Electron Proton All of the above What region of an atom contains the protons and neutrons? Cloud Nucleus Element Ring Shell This is the number of protons or electrons.

Mass number Atomic number Isotope Valence shell None of the above As an atoms nucleus decays, it will emit radiation. This is seen in Compounds Cations Anions Isotopes Molecules This refers to the atomic weight of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element. Mass number Atomic number Atomic mass Ionic mass Covalent mass Which of the following particles plays a role in creating chemical bonds? Neutron Electron Proton All of the above Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 1 9. a. b. c. d. e. 10. a. b. c. d. e. 11. a. b. c. d. e. 12. a. b. c. d. e.

This is a negatively charged atom. Superoxide Isotope Catalyst Ion Valence Which of the below provide an electrical current?. Isotope Ionic molecule Compound Electrolyte Valence molecule This type of bond requires a sharing of electrons. Covalent Ionic Hydrogen Atomic Electronic This is the type of bond between the atoms forming water Nonpolar covalent Polar covalent Hydrogen Ionic Atomic 13. Which of the following bonds provides the three dimensional structure of large molecules like proteins and DNA? a. Nonpolar covalent b. Polar covalent c. Hydrogen d. Ionic e.

Atomic 14. a. b. c. d. e. 15. a. b. c. d. e. 16. a. b. c. d. e. This occurs when new bonds form or old bonds break between atoms. Ions Electrolytes Isotopes Chemical reaction Compounds This is defined as the capacity to do work. Metabolism Electrolytes Chemical reaction Concentration Energy This type of reaction will absorb more energy that it releases. Exergonic Endergonic Potential Kinetic Activation Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 2 17. a. b. c. d. e. 18. a. b. c. d. e. 19. a. b. c. d. e. 20. a. b. c. d. e. 21. a. b. c. d. e. 22. a. b. c. d. e. 23. a. . c. d. e. 24. a. b. c. d. e. An enzyme acts to Raise the activation energy needed Lower the activation energy needed Convert the activation energy into potential Convert the activation energy into kinetic Break a chemical reaction This type of reaction will combine reactants to produce larger products. Synthesis Decomposition Potential Exchange Activated This type of reaction will break larger reactants to produce smaller products. Synthesis Decomposition Potential Exchange Activated This is the most abundant and most important inorganic compound in the body.

Water Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide Glucose DNA A solute that dissolves in water is. Hydrophobic Hydrostatic Hydroamoure Hydrophillic Hydrozone In a typical body solution, the solvent is. Glucose Lipids Carbon dioxide Water Electrolyte A solution with a pH value smaller than 7 would be a(n) Base Salt Acid alkaline concentrate A substance that adds or removes Hydrogen ions from a solution is a(n) Base Salt Acid alkaline buffer Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 3 25. a. b. c. d. e. Which of the following is considered a proton donor? Acid Base Salt Organic compound Colloid 6. These are specific arrangements of atoms that confer characteristic chemical properties upon organic molecules. a. Acids b. Bases c. Carbons d. Functional groups e. Isomers 27. a. b. c. d. e. 28. a. b. c. d. e. 29. a. b. c. d. e. Glucose and fructose both have the chemical formula C6H12O6 so they are considered Isotopes Isometrics Isolates Isomers Isotonics Which of the following is a monosaccaride that is important in producing energy. Glucose Sucrose Lactose Ribose Deoxyribose The major energy storage polysaccharide in humans is Cellulose Ribose Lipids Fats Glycogen 0. This type of triglyceride contains more than one double bond in the fatty acid carbon atoms. a. Saturated b. Monounsaturated c. Polyunsaturated d. Acylglycerols e. Lipoprotein 31. a. b. c. d. e. 32. a. b. c. d. e. Dr. D. This type of lipid is the body’s long term energy storage molecule. Steroid Phospholipid Cholesterol Triglyceride Lipoprotein This type of lipid is used by the body to create hormones. Cellulose Phospholipid Cholesterol Triglyceride Lipoprotein Houston Community College Page 4 33. a. b. c. d. e. 34. a. b. c. d. 35. a. . c. d. e. 36. a. b. c. d. e. 37. a. b. c. d. e. 38. a. b. c. d. e. 39. a. b. c. d. e. 40. a. b. c. d. e. Which of the following is NOT true about phospholipids? They contain an glycerol backbone The head group is polar The molecule is an important part of cell membranes The tail groups are nonpolar They are a major energy storage lipid Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are considered: Amphipathic Both Lipids and Eicosanoids Eicosanoids All of the above The primary structure of a protein contains Alpha helix Beta-pleated sheets Substrates

Amino acids All of the above Which of the following is a purine? Cytosine Guanine Thymine Ribose Phosphate Which is the function of RNA? Produce electrical impulses storage of energy transfer information for protein synthesis store information for protein synthesis transport of fluids Which is the function of DNA? Produce chemical signals storage of energy transfer information for protein synthesis store information for protein synthesis transport of electrolytes Which is the function of ATP?

Produce electrical impulses Transfers energy for cell functions transfer information for protein synthesis store information for protein synthesis transport of fluids What monomer is used to build RNA and DNA? fatty acid amino acid Glucose glycerol nucleotide Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 5 Atomic Structure (41 – 43) 41. a. b. c. d. e. In the diagram which particles are negatively charged? A B C All of the above None of the above 42. In the diagram, which particles are positively charged? a. A b. B c. C d.

All of the above e. None of the above 43. In the diagram, which particles have no charge? a. A b. B c. C d. All of the above e. None of the above Nitrogenous Bases (44 – 46) 44. In the diagram, which one is a purine? a. A b. B c. E d. Both a and b e. All of the above 45. In the diagram, which one is deoxyribose? a. B b. E c. F d. None of the above e. The entire structure is considered a deoxyribose molecule 46. a. b. c. d. e. In the diagram, where is the pyrimidine? A B E F None of the above Dr. D. Houston Community College Page 6